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Research methodology definitions

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Mutations in VANGL1 Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. Zoha Kibar, Ph.D., Elena Torban, Ph.D., Jonathan R. McDearmid, Ph.D., Annie Reynolds, M.Sc., Joanne Berghout, B.Sc., Melissa Mathieu, B.Sc., Irena Kirillova, Ph.D., Patrizia De Marco, Ph.D., Elisa Merello, Ph.D., Julie M. Hayes, B.A., John B. Methodology Definitions! Wallingford, Ph.D., Pierre Drapeau, Ph.D., Valeria Capra, M.D., and Philippe Gros, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1432-1437 April 5, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa060651. Neural-tube defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida constitute a group of common congenital malformations caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. The Meaning Of The Lord By Line! We have identified three mutations in the VANGL1 gene in patients with familial types (V239I and R274Q) and a sporadic type (M328T) of the disease, including a spontaneous mutation (V239I) appearing in a familial setting. In a proteinprotein interaction assay V239I abolished interaction of VANGL1 protein with its binding partners, disheveled-1, -2, and -3. Definitions! These findings implicate VANGL1 as a risk factor in human neural-tube defects. Neural-tube defects affect 1 to 2 infants per 1000 births 1 and are caused by Genocide examples, a partial or complete failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis.

1 The most common forms of neural-tube defects are described as open defects (including anencephaly and myelomeningocele, or spina bifida), which result from the failure of fusion in the cranial and methodology definitions, spinal region of the neural tube, respectively. Of The Leads Highest Rate! 1 Other open dysraphisms (including myeloschisis, hemimyelomeningocele, and research methodology, hemimyelocele) are sometimes associated with a Chiari II malformation. A number of skin-covered (closed) neural-tube defects are categorized clinically depending on for Gratification the presence of a subcutaneous mass (lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele) or the methodology absence of such a mass (complex dysraphic states, including split cord malformations, dermal sinus, caudal regression, and segmental spinal dysgenesis). 2 All infants with anencephaly are stillborn or die shortly after birth, whereas many infants with spina bifida now survive but with severe disabilities. Medusa! 1.

Maternal periconceptional supplementation of folic acid reduces the incidence of neural-tube defects by 50 to methodology definitions 70%. 3 Polymorphic variants in genes of the folate and homocysteine pathways have been associated with an increased risk of neural-tube defects, including a common variant (C677T) in the MTHFR gene (5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase). Which Following Highest Rate Of Lac! 3 However, population- and family-based studies indicate a complex multigenic cause of neural-tube defects. 1 Although no causative gene has been identified in humans, mutated Vangl2 is research, present in the Loop-tail ( Lp ) mouse mutant 4,5 with a severe defect known as craniorachischisis. 6 Vangl2 is the mammalian homologue of the drosophila (fly) gene Stbm/Vang, which is required for establishing planar cell polarity in and the Spring the developing eye, wing, and research definitions, leg tissues. 7,8. In the fly, planar cell polarity is controlled by a membrane-associated signaling complex composed of about and the Spring, several proteins, including Stbm/Vang, frizzled (Fz), disheveled (Dvl), flamingo (Fmi), and prickle (Pk). Activation of planar cell polarity involves an asymmetric redistribution of these core proteins in which cytoplasmic Dvl and Pk are recruited to the plasma membrane, forming complexes with Fz and Stbm/Vang, respectively. 9 In vertebrates, a second VANGL gene ( VANGL1 ) has been described. Research Definitions! VANGL1 and VANGL2 proteins are highly similar.

Each has four predicted transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic domain that includes a PDZ-binding motif that mediates proteinprotein interaction. 10 In mice, Vangl1 and Vangl2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are expressed in the ventral and dorsal portions of the which rate developing neural tube, respectively. 11. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the VANGL1 and VANGL2 genes cause neural-tube defects and abrogate the physical interaction of the VANGL1 protein and disheveled proteins. This study included 144 patients with neural-tube defects, including 137 Italian patients with nonsyndromic spinal dysraphisms who were recruited at the Spina Bifida Center of the research methodology definitions Gaslini Hospital in Genoa and 7 fetuses with craniorachischisis that were obtained from Groupe Hopitalier Necker-Enfants Malades in Paris. Medusa Poem Analysis! The Spina Bifida Center of Gaslini Hospital has recruited children with neural-tube defects since 1976, mainly from the north and south of Italy. All mothers of Italian patients lacked periconceptional supplementation of folic acid. Research Methodology! Thirteen of the which leads operon Italian patients had a positive family history documented by clinical records including findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiography, which were obtained from parents of research, patients whereas all other patients had sporadic disease ( Table 1 Table 1 Characteristics of the Patients. , and The Search, Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix, which is available with the full text of definitions, this article at Genocide Essay examples www.nejm.org). The control group consisted of 106 unrelated, randomly selected children who had been admitted to the Gaslini Children's Hospital for miscellaneous illnesses and methodology definitions, healthy young adults who had contributed samples to the blood bank of the Gaslini Institute. None of the reference letter patients had a first-degree relative with a neural-tube defect. The samples from all control subjects were anonymous.

Information associated with these samples included sex, region of birth, and age. All patients and control subjects were Italian with ancestors from all parts of the country, as determined during genetic-counseling sessions. The experimental protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and research definitions, written informed consent was obtained from all patients or their parents. Essay! We analyzed additional samples from 65 subjects in the control group obtained from the research definitions Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) repository, which contains samples from Syria Spring French, Venezuelan, and Amish persons and also persons from Utah with northwestern European ancestry. The coding exons of VANGL1 (National Center for Biotechnology Information accession number, NM_138959) were amplified by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay from genomic DNA with the use of primers flanking the exonintron junctions, as described previously. 4 Primer sequences are available from the authors on request.

The PCR products were purified with the use of research methodology, a Qiaquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and were sequenced with the use of the BigDye Terminator V2.0 cycle sequencing kit and an automated ABI 3700 instrument (Applied Biosystems). All mutations were verified by The Search Essay, the dideoxynucleotide termination method and 33 P sequencing with the use of the Thermo Sequenase radiolabeled terminator cycle sequencing kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Physical interactions between human VANGL1 and disheveled proteins were monitored as described previously. Research! 10 For details, see the Methods section of the of the prayer line Supplementary Appendix. We identified three Italian patients who were heterozygotic for missense mutations in VANGL1 (V239I, R274Q, and M328T). These mutations were predicted to research methodology affect amino acid residues that are conserved across members of the VANGL family. We did not detect these variants in ancestrally matched controls or in examples CEPH controls. We observed V239I and research methodology, R274Q in two patients with familial types of disease (Patient 103 and Patient 48, respectively) and M328T in a patient with a sporadic type (Patient 151).

The remaining 11 patients with familial types of a neural-tube defect did not carry any disease-specific mutation in the open reading frame of VANGL1 . We identified eight other sequence variants in the open reading frame of VANGL1 that were silent (that is, they did not change the predicted amino acid), that were present in Essay about Syria both patients with neural-tube defects and control subjects, or that did not affect highly conserved residues (Table 2 of the Supplementary Appendix). Research Definitions! On the letter friend other hand, we sequenced VANGL2 in both series of patients and identified several variants but none that were predicted to affect protein sequence (data not shown and in agreement with previous findings). Research! 11. We detected a missense mutation in VANGL1 that is predicted to result in the substitution of valine with isoleucine at position 239 (V239I) in Patient 103, a 10-year-old Italian girl who had a severe form of Essay examples, caudal regression (type IV of sacral agenesis, according to research definitions Pang's classification 12 ) with lipomyeloschisis, anorectal malformation, hydromelia, and tethered spinal cord (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). The girl's mother showed no clinical signs of neural-tube defect, and her brother had a milder form of the disease, dermal sinus.

V239I was present in the brother and mother of Patient 103 and was absent in The Search the father and maternal aunt. However, the maternal grandparents did not carry the mutation, indicating that it had arisen de novo in the germ line of one of the maternal grandparents or somatically in the mother and methodology definitions, was subsequently transmitted through the mother's germ line ( Figure 1A Figure 1 VANGL1 Mutations Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. Leads Rate Operon! The familial pedigrees are shown for Patient 103 (Panel A) and research methodology definitions, Patient 48 (Panel B), who carry the V239I (715G>A) and R274Q (821G>A) mutations, respectively. The Meaning Of The Lord By Line! Patient 103 (arrow) was affected with lipomyeloschisis, hydromyelia, and caudal regression. Her brother was affected with dermal sinus (patterned box). V239I was present in the brother and mother and absent in the father and the maternal aunt and grandparents. Patient 48 (arrow) was affected with lumbosacral myelomeningocele (L5S1) and methodology definitions, hydrocephalus. Her mother and maternal aunt were affected with vertebral schisis (dotted circles). R274Q was present in the mother and absent in the father.

Panel C shows a topologic model of VANGL1 with the poem approximate positions of V239I, R274Q, and M328T indicated. Research! Panel D shows a partial alignment of VANGL1 with 10 other vertebrate and invertebrate Stbm/Vangl sequences. Residues that are conserved between VANGL1 and other VANGL proteins are highlighted. VANGL1 substitutions of V239I (left), R274Q (center), and character reference letter friend sample, M328T (right) that are found in patients with neural-tube defects affect conserved residues (indicated by arrows). National Center for methodology definitions Biotechnology Information accession numbers are NP_620409 for VANGL1, XP_049695 for character letter friend sample VANGL2, NP_277044 for mouse (m) Vangl2, XP_222896 for rat (r) Vangl2, AAK70879 for research methodology definitions xenopus (x) Vangl2, AAL30891 for zebrafish (z) Vangl2, AK113083 for ascidian (as) Vangl2, NP_477177 for drosophila (d) Stbm/Vang, EAA00250 for African malaria mosquito (ma) Stbm, and The Search Essay, NP_508500 for research Caenorhabditis elegans (ce) Stbm.

The protein sequence of The Silent Genocide Essay, mouse Vangl1 was initially reported by Wolff and research, Rubin in 1998. 8 ). Additional genotyping confirmed paternity, maternity, and DNA authenticity in all family members (including the paternity and maternity of the The Search for Gratification Essay mother of the proband) from whom DNA was available (not shown). Valine at position 239 is in research methodology definitions the fourth predicted transmembrane domain of the VANGL1 protein ( Figure 1C ). It is invariant and part of Essay about and the Arab Spring, a VLLE motif, which is conserved across all known Vangl proteins ( Figure 1D ). Although a substitution with isoleucine preserves the methodology hydrophobic character of valine, it introduces a bulky side chain, which may have structural or functional consequences. We identified a missense mutation that is predicted to result in the substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 274 (R274Q) in Patient 48, a 19-year-old Italian girl who had myelomeningocele (level L5S1), hydrocephalus, and congenital club feet (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). Syria Spring! Her mother and definitions, maternal aunt had vertebral schisis, a minimal sign of a neural-tube defect. R274Q was present in the mother but not in Essay about and the Spring the father (DNA samples from the research patient's maternal aunt and of the by line, brother were not available for analysis) ( Figure 1B ). R274Q is in the cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). It is invariant in definitions all known orthologues (genes in two or more species that have evolved from the meaning of the a common ancestor) except that of Caenorhabditis elegans, in research methodology which it is replaced by glutamate ( Figure 1D ). Analysis! Although a substitution of definitions, glutamate in the C. Letter For A Sample! elegans orthologue is nonconservative, it preserves the charged character of arginine, a physical property that is not preserved by substitution with glutamine. We detected a missense mutation that is research, predicted to character reference letter friend result in the substitution of methionine with threonine at position 328 (M328T) in a 21-year-old woman with sporadic disease; she had myelomeningocele (level L3S1), hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, tethered spinal cord, club feet, lumbosacral scoliosis, and sacrococcygeal kyphosis. M328T is methodology definitions, also in the predicted cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). The hydrophobic character of methionine is conserved at this position across evolution ( Figure 1D ). About Syria Arab! M328T is methodology, not a conservative substitution because threonine contains a hydroxyl side chain that substantially increases the hydrophilicity at this position. Mouse Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins physically interact with cytoplasmic Dvl1, Dvl2, and Essay about Syria Arab Spring, Dvl3; in mice, Lp -associated mutations of Vangl2 disrupt this interaction. Methodology! 10 Therefore, we tested the ability of V239I, R274Q, and M328T variants of VANGL1 to interact with the Dvl proteins with use of the of the lord yeast two-hybrid system.

All VANGL1 and Dvl constructs were stably expressed at similar levels in definitions Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( Figure 2A Figure 2 Interaction of Human VANGL1 Variants with Disheveled Proteins in Syria Spring a Yeast Two-Hybrid System. Definitions! Panel A shows immunoblotting of wild-type and mutant (V239I, R274Q, M328T, D259E, and S467N) VANGL1 variants (cytoplasmic domain, positions 243526) expressed in yeast cells with a monoclonal antibody directed against Essay Syria, a c- myc epitope engineered at the N-terminal of research, VANGL1 proteins. N-terminal segments of Dvl proteins (positions 1404 of Dvl1-5, positions 1418 of Dvl2-5, and positions 1395 of Dvl3-5) consisting of the DIX and PDZ domains and a C-terminal segment corresponding to the DEP domains of Dvl3 (positions 389717 of Dvl3-3) were detected with the use of a monoclonal antibody against Essay about and the Arab Spring, an HA epitope present in all Dvl constructs, as well as in the control pGAD vector (pGAD). In Panel B, diploid cells, produced by mating cells Dvl (rows) and VANGL1-expressing yeast cells (columns), were plated on a medium of increasing stringency of selection to research definitions detect interaction (growth). The medium labeled ?Leu/?Trp lacks leucine and tryptophan and supports the medusa analysis growth of research definitions, diploid cells without a requirement for protein interaction. The medium labeled His/Leu/Trp (which lacks histidine, leucine, and tryptophan) and the medium labeled Ade/His/Leu/Trp (which lacks adenine, histidine, leucine, and tryptophan) support the growth of diploid cells only if proteins interact.

Interaction between the various Dvl and VANGL chimeras was verified by measuring the for Gratification activity of ?-galactosidase (Panel C) and ?-galactosidase (Panel D), as described previously. 10 The I bars indicate standard deviations. ). Our results indicate that VANGL1 interacts with the definitions N-terminal half of Dvl proteins and that this interaction is The Search, disrupted either completely (D259E) or partially (S467N) by Lp -associated mutations ( Figure 2B ). The V239I mutation in VANGL1 abrogated interaction between VANGL1 and all three Dvl proteins, whereas R274Q and M238T had no apparent effect on this interaction in this assay ( Figure 2B ). We obtained similar results regardless of the reporter of this interaction (the secretion of ?-galactosidase or the production of ?-galactosidase) in diploid yeast cells ( Figure 2C and 2D ). We have identified three VANGL1 mutations (V239I, R274Q, and research, M328T) in patients with sporadic and The Silent Genocide examples, familial neural-tube defects. These three mutations affect residues conserved in Vangl proteins across species. Research Definitions! Our findings contrast with those of character for a friend sample, a previous study in which no disease-specific mutation was identified in VANGL1 in methodology definitions a group of 66 patients with neural-tube defects. 11. The phenotype associated with V239I varied among patients. Essay Arab Spring! This finding is consistent with the methodology definitions proposed multifactorial model for neural-tube defects; V239I probably has a partial or complete loss-of-function effect and interacts with other genetic loci or unknown environmental factors to modulate the incidence and Essay about Syria Spring, severity of the defect.

Notably, the mother of the proband with the V239I de novo mutation also had the research methodology mutation (de novo) but no phenotype for which to the of lac transcription? a neural-tube defect, possibly reflecting mosaicism (with respect to research methodology cells carrying the The Silent Essay mutation) or variable penetrance or expressivity. At the biochemical level, V239I abolishes the research methodology definitions interaction of VANGL1 with Dvl proteins, which may compromise the recruitment of Dvl to the plasma membrane and thus perturb molecular signaling during gastrulation and neural-tube closure. Noncoding regulatory polymorphisms in VANGL1, particularly regulatory variants modulating the Syria Arab Spring level of gene transcription, could also confer susceptibility to neural-tube defects. A thorough analysis of the promoter region of VANGL1 in our series of patients may uncover additional mutations predisposing to the condition. However, the identification of such polymorphisms is challenging in methodology definitions the absence of detailed information on cis -acting sequence elements that regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of VANGL1 during embryogenesis. Our results are consistent with studies that underscore the critical role of core planar-cell-polarity genes ( Vangl2, Celsr1, Dvl, and Fz ) in following leads to the controlling convergent extension, a process necessary for neural-tube closure. 4,5,13-16 Moreover, it was shown that mutations in Ptk7 interact genetically with Vangl2 in mice that are heterozygous for both mutations and consequently develop neural-tube defects.

17 Studying the research methodology effect of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, inositol, and methionine on the emergence of neural-tube defects in these mutants may shed further light on of the following to the the preventive mechanism associated with these nutrients. Additional tests of association between mutated VANGL1 and neural-tube defects in humans is warranted, as is the systematic genetic and biochemical testing of the other members of the planar-cell-polarity signaling pathway for a role in the cause of this disease. Supported by a Career Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (to Dr. Wallingford), by a grant from the Gaslini Foundation (to Dr. Capra), by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and by grants from the Canadian Institute for Health Research, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council, Genome Quebec, and methodology definitions, Genome Canada (to Drs. Drapeau and poem, Gros). No potential conflict of research methodology definitions, interest relevant to this article was reported. We thank all the patients who participated in The Silent Genocide examples this study; the Spina Bifida Association of Italy; and T. Attie-Bitach and M. Vekemans of Hopital NeckerEnfants Malades, Paris, for their assistance with the craniorachischisis samples. From the Department of Biochemistry, McGill University (Z.K., E.T., J.B., M.M., P.G.), and the Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, and the Department of Pathology and methodology, Cell Biology, University of Montreal (J.R.M., A.R., P.D.) all in Montreal; the Institute of Hereditary Diseases, Minsk, Belarus (I.K.); Unita Operativa di Neurochirurgia, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy (P.D.M., E.M., V.C.); and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin (J.M.H., J.B.W.). Address reprints requests to Dr.

Gros at the Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Rm. 907, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada, or at and the Arab philippe.gros@mcgill.ca. Copp AJ , Greene NDE , Murdoch JN . Methodology Definitions! The genetic basis of mammalian neurulation. Nat Rev Genet 2003;4:784-793. Tortori-Donati P , Rossi A , Cama A . Following Rate Of Lac Operon! Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlation and proposal for a new classification. Methodology! Neuroradiology 2000;42:471-491. van der Linden IJ , Afman LA , Heil SG , Blom HJ . Genetic variation in genes of folate metabolism and neural-tube defect risk. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:204-215. Kibar Z , Vogan KJ , Groulx N , Justice MJ , Underhill DA , Gros P . Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube defect mutant Loop-tail.

Nat Genet 2001;28:251-255. Murdoch JN , Doudney K , Paternotte C , Copp AJ , Stanier P . Severe neural tube defects in about Syria Spring the loop-tail mouse result from research mutation of medusa poem analysis, Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:2593-2601. Stein KF , Rudin IA . Development of methodology, mice homozygous for which of the leads highest of lac transcription? the gene for Looptail. J Hered 1953;44:59-69. Taylor J , Abramova N , Charlton J , Adler PN . Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics 1998;150:199-210. Wolff T , Rubin GM . Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and research definitions, cell fate decisions in Drosophila.

Development 1998;125:1149-1159. Strutt H , Strutt D . Long-range coordination of planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays 2005;27:1218-1227. Torban E , Wang H-J , Groulx N , Gros P . Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. J Biol Chem 2004;279:52703-52713.

Doudney K , Ybot-Gonzalez P , Paternotte C , et al. Analysis of the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 and its co-expressed paralogue Vangl1 in neural tube defect patients. Medusa Poem! Am J Med Genet A 2005;136:90-92[Erratum, Am J Med Genet A 2005;138:415.] Pang D . Sacral agenesis and caudal spinal cord malformations. Neurosurgery 1993;32:755-779. Curtin JA , Quint E , Tsipouri V , et al. Mutation of definitions, Celsr1 disrupts planar polarity of inner ear hair cells and causes severe neural tube defects in the mouse. Curr Biol 2003;13:1129-1133.

Hamblet NS , Lijam N , Ruiz-Lozano P , et al. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and Genocide Essay, neural tube closure. Development 2002;129:5827-5838. Torban E , Kor C , Gros P . Research Definitions! Van Gogh-like 2 (Strabismus) and its role in planar cell polarity and convergent extension in vertebrates. Trends Genet 2004;20:570-577. Wang Y , Guo N , Nathans J . The role of Frizzled3 and the meaning of the prayer line by line, Frizzled6 in research methodology neural tube closure and in the planar polarity of inner-ear sensory hair cells.

J Neurosci 2006;26:2147-2156. Lu X , Borchers AG , Jolicoeur C , Rayburn H , Baker JC , Tessier-Lavigne M . PTK7/CCK-4 is a novel regulator of medusa poem analysis, planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Research Methodology! Nature 2004;430:93-98. Shuyuan Chen, Qin Zhang, Baoling Bai, Shengrong Ouyang, Yihua Bao, Huili Li, Ting Zhang. . (2017) MARK2/Par1b Insufficiency Attenuates DVL Gene Transcription via Histone Deacetylation in Lumbosacral Spina Bifida. Molecular Neurobiology 54 :8, 6304-6316. Zhiwen Shi, Xueyan Yang, Bin-Bin Li, Shuxia Chen, Luming Yang, Liangping Cheng, Ting Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng. . (2017) Novel Mutation of LRP6 Identified in Chinese Han Population Links Canonical WNT Signaling to Essay Neural Tube Defects. Birth Defects Research 7 . Andre M. Goffinet, Fadel Tissir. . Definitions! (2017) Seven pass Cadherins CELSR1-3.

Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 69 , 102-110. Philippe Lemay, Patrizia De Marco, Alexandre Emond, Dan Spiegelman, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Sandra Laurent, Elisa Merello, Andrea Accogli, Guy A Rouleau, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . Genocide Essay Examples! (2017) Rare deleterious variants in GRHL3 are associated with human spina bifida. Human Mutation 38 :6, 716-724. Hwa-Seon Seo, Raymond Habas, Chenbei Chang, Jianbo Wang. Research Methodology! . (2017) Bimodal regulation of Dishevelled function by Vangl2 during morphogenesis. Human Molecular Genetics 26 :11, 2053-2061. Malene R. Andersen, Muhammad Farooq, Karen Koefoed, Klaus W. Kjaer, Ane Simony, Soren T. Christensen, Lars A. Genocide! Larsen. . (2017) Mutation of the Planar Cell Polarity Gene VANGL1 in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. SPINE 42 :12, E702-E707. Hanna Berger, Andreas Wodarz, Annette Borchers. . (2017) PTK7 Faces the Wnt in Development and Disease. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 5 . Xiaoli Chen, Yu An, Yonghui Gao, Liu Guo, Lei Rui, Hua Xie, Mei Sun, Siv Lam Hung, Xiaoming Sheng, Jizhen Zou, Yihua Bao, Hongyan Guan, Bo Niu, Zandong Li, Richard H. Methodology! Finnell, James F. Gusella, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang. . (2017) Rare Deleterious PARD3 Variants in the aPKC-Binding Region are Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Human Cranial Neural Tube Defects Via Disrupting Apical Tight Junction Formation. The Search For Gratification! Human Mutation 38 :4, 378-389.

Mitchell T. Butler, John B. Wallingford. . (2017) Planar cell polarity in research methodology definitions development and disease. The Meaning Of The Prayer! Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 18 :6, 375-388. Curtis W. Research Definitions! Boswell, Brian Ciruna. . Essay! (2017) Understanding Idiopathic Scoliosis: A New Zebrafish School of research methodology definitions, Thought. Trends in Genetics 33 :3, 183-196. M. Elizabeth Ross, Christopher E. Mason, Richard H. Of The To The Highest Rate Of Lac Transcription?! Finnell. . (2017) Genomic approaches to the assessment of human spina bifida risk.

Birth Defects Research 109 :2, 120-128. Siti W. Mohd-Zin, Ahmed I. Marwan, Mohamad K. Abou Chaar, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah M. Abdul-Aziz. . (2017) Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans. Research! Scientifica 2017 , 1-29. Douglas W. Houston. . The Silent Genocide Essay! 2017. Methodology Definitions! Vertebrate Axial Patterning: From Egg to analysis Asymmetry.

Vertebrate Development, 209-306. Andrew J. Copp, Philip Stanier, Nicholas D. E. Greene. . Research Methodology! 2017. Genetic Basis of Neural Tube Defects. Medusa Analysis! Textbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 1-28. Robert M. Porsch, Elisa Merello, Patrizia De Marco, Guo Cheng, Laura Rodriguez, Manting So, Pak C. Research! Sham, Paul K. Tam, Valeria Capra, Stacey S. Cherny, Maria-Merce Garcia-Barcelo, Desmond D. Campbell. Essay And The Arab! . (2016) Sacral agenesis: a pilot whole exome sequencing and methodology, copy number study. BMC Medical Genetics 17 :1. Ann E. Sutherland. . Character Reference For A Friend! (2016) Tissue morphodynamics shaping the research methodology definitions early mouse embryo.

Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 55 , 89-98. La Carpia Francesca, Rendeli Claudia, Clelia Molinario, Milillo Annamaria, Farroni Chiara, Cannelli Natalia, Ausili Emanuele, Paolucci Valentina, Neri Giovanni, Romagnoli Costantino, Sangiorgi Eugenio, Gurrieri Fiorella. . (2016) Variants in TNIP1, a regulator of the NF-kB pathway, found in two patients with neural tube defects. Of The Lord By Line! Child's Nervous System 32 :6, 1061-1067. Vicki Leung, Alexandra Iliescu, Christine Jolicoeur, Michel Gravel, Sergio Apuzzo, Elena Torban, Michel Cayouette, Philippe Gros. . (2016) The planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 is methodology definitions, required for letter for a retinal axon guidance. Developmental Neurobiology 76 :10.1002/dneu.v76.2, 150-165.

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Atypical Cognitive Development. Handbook of Child Psychology and Essay, Developmental Science, 1-48. Tanvi Sinha, Ding Li, Magali Theveniau-Ruissy, Mary R. Hutson, Robert G. Kelly, Jianbo Wang. . (2015) Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics 24 :6, 1704-1716. Nirmala Gurung, Greta Grosse, Markus Draaken, Alina Hilger, Nuzhat Nauman, Andreas Mi??ller, Ulrich Gembruch, Waltraut Merz, Heiko Reutter, Michael Ludwig. . (2015) Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse. Molecular Medicine Reports . Tania Puvirajesinghe, Jean-Paul Borg. . (2015) Neural Tube Defects: From a Proteomic Standpoint. Metabolites 5 , 164-183. Irene E. Zohn. Research Definitions! . 2015. Neural Tube Defects.

Principles of Developmental Genetics, 697-721. Redouane Allache, Mingqin Wang, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . The Meaning Of The Prayer! (2015) Genetic studies of definitions, ANKRD6 as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways in character for a friend human neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 20-26. E. Merello, S. Mascelli, A. Raso, G. Piatelli, A. Methodology! Consales, A. Cama, Z. Leads Rate Of Lac Transcription?! Kibar, V. Research Methodology! Capra, Patrizia De Marco. . (2015) Expanding the mutational spectrum associated to neural tube defects: Literature revision and description of medusa poem, novel VANGL1 mutations. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 51-61. Shaofang Shangguan, Li Wang, Shaoyan Chang, Xiaoling Lu, Zhen Wang, Lihua Wu, Jianhua Wang, Xiuwei Wang, Zhen Guan, Yihua Bao, Huizhi Zhao, Jizhen Zou, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang. . (2015) DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the risk of research methodology definitions, spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 37-44. Jonathan J. Wilde, Juliette R. Petersen, Lee Niswander. . (2014) Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Contributions to Neural Tube Closure. Annual Review of Genetics 48 :1, 141007180313005. Ou-Yan Shi, Hui-Yun Yang, Yong-Ming Shen, Wei Sun, Chun-You Cai, Chun-Quan Cai. Essay! . (2014) Polymorphisms in FZD3 and FZD6 genes and risk of neural tube defects in a northern Han Chinese population.

Neurological Sciences 35 , 1701-1706. Madeline Hayes, Xiaochong Gao, Lisa X Yu, Nandina Paria, R. Mark Henkelman, Carol A. Wise, Brian Ciruna. Research Definitions! . Which Of The Following Leads Rate Transcription?! (2014) ptk7 mutant zebrafish models of congenital and idiopathic scoliosis implicate dysregulated Wnt signalling in disease. Nature Communications 5 , 4777. Michael Sebbagh, Jean-Paul Borg. . (2014) Insight into planar cell polarity. Experimental Cell Research . Alexandra Iliescu, Michel Gravel, Cynthia Horth, Philippe Gros. . (2014) Independent Mutations at Arg181 and Arg274 of Vangl Proteins That Are Associated with Neural Tube Defects in Humans Decrease Protein Stability and Impair Membrane Targeting. Biochemistry 53 , 5356-5364. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . (2014) Planar cell polarity gene mutations contribute to the etiology of human neural tube defects in our population. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 100 :10.1002/bdra.v100.8, 633-641. Deidre R. Krupp, Karen L. Soldano, Melanie E. Garrett, Heidi Cope, Allison E. Definitions! Ashley-Koch, Simon G. Character Letter Sample! Gregory. . (2014) Missing genetic risk in neural tube defects: Can exome sequencing yield an insight?.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 100 :10.1002/bdra.v100.8, 642-646. Nicholas D.E. Greene, Andrew J. Copp. . (2014) Neural Tube Defects. Annual Review of Neuroscience 37 :1, 221-242. Redouane Allache, Stephanie Lachance, Marie Claude Guyot, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Monica J. Justice, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2014) Novel mutations in research Lrp6 orthologs in mouse and human neural tube defects affect a highly dosage-sensitive Wnt non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway. Human Molecular Genetics 23 :7, 1687-1699. Yunping Lei, Huiping Zhu, Wei Yang, M. Elizabeth Ross, Gary M. Shaw, Richard H. Finnell, Osman El-Maarri. . (2014) Identification of Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida.

PLoS ONE 9 :3, e92207. L. Henry Goodnough, Gregg J. DiNuoscio, James W. Ferguson, Trevor Williams, Richard A. Lang, Radhika P. Atit, Gregory S. Barsh. . Poem! (2014) Distinct Requirements for Cranial Ectoderm and Mesenchyme-Derived Wnts in research methodology definitions Specification and Differentiation of Osteoblast and of the following rate of lac, Dermal Progenitors. PLoS Genetics 10 :2, e1004152. Yi Chi, Lijun Pei, Gong Chen, Xinming Song, Aihua Zhao, Tianlu Chen, Mingming Su, Yinan Zhang, Jianmeng Liu, Aiguo Ren, Xiaoying Zheng, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia. . (2014) Metabonomic Profiling of Human Placentas Reveals Different Metabolic Patterns among Subtypes of Neural Tube Defects. Journal of Proteome Research 13 , 934-945. Masakazu Hashimoto, Hitoshi Morita, Naoto Ueno. . (2014) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of development underlying congenital diseases. Congenital Anomalies 54 :10.1111/cga.2014.54.issue-1, 1-7. Chunquan Cai, Ouyan Shi. . (2013) Genetic evidence in planar cell polarity signaling pathway in human neural tube defects. Frontiers of Medicine . Lisette Stolk, Marieke I. Bouwland-Both, Nina H. van Mill, Michael M. P. J. Verbiest, Paul H. C. Eilers, Huiping Zhu, Lucina Suarez, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Regine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen, Junming Yue. . (2013) Epigenetic Profiles in Children with a Neural Tube Defect; A Case-Control Study in Two Populations. PLoS ONE 8 :11, e78462.

George Kamel, Tatiana Hoyos, Lucie Rochard, Max Dougherty, Yawei Kong, William Tse, Valeriy Shubinets, Michael Grimaldi, Eric C. Liao. . (2013) Requirement for frzb and fzd7a in cranial neural crest convergence and extension mechanisms during zebrafish palate and research definitions, jaw morphogenesis. Developmental Biology 381 , 423-433. Xue-Yan Yang, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Qing Qing Wang, Hong Li, Ying Chen, Yun-Ping Lei, Xiao-Hang Ma, Pan Kong, Yan Shi, Li Jin, Ting Zhang, Hong-Yan Wang. . Character Reference Letter Sample! (2013) Mutations in the COPII Vesicle Component Gene SEC24B are Associated with Human Neural Tube Defects. Research Methodology! Human Mutation 34 , 1094-1101. Andrew J Copp, Philip Stanier, Nicholas DE Greene. About Syria And The! . (2013) Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies. The Lancet Neurology 12 :8, 799-810. Noa Safra, Alexander G. Bassuk, Polly J. Research! Ferguson, Miriam Aguilar, Rochelle L. Coulson, Nicholas Thomas, Peta L. Hitchens, Peter J. Dickinson, Karen M. Essay About! Vernau, Zena T. Research Definitions! Wolf, Danika L. Bannasch, Tosso Leeb. Of The Following Leads Highest Transcription?! . (2013) Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Dogs Enables Identification of the Homeobox Gene, NKX2-8, as a Genetic Component of research definitions, Neural Tube Defects in Humans. PLoS Genetics 9 :7, e1003646. Fadel Tissir, Andre M. Goffinet. . (2013) Shaping the nervous system: role of the core planar cell polarity genes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14 , 525-535. Consolato Sergi, Jean Gekas, Deepak Kamnasaran. . (2013) Recurrent anencephaly: A case report and of the following operon transcription?, examination of the VANGL1 and research methodology definitions, FOXN1 genes.

Fetal and Pediatric Pathology 32 , 293-297. Elisa Merello, Zoha Kibar, Redouane Allache, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Valeria Capra, Patrizia De Marco. . (2013) Rare missense variants in DVL1 , one of the human counterparts of the The Search for Gratification Drosophila dishevelled gene, do not confer increased risk for neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 97 , 452-455. Alexis Robinson, Darren Partridge, Ashraf Malhas, Sandra C.P. De Castro, Peter Gustavsson, Dominic N. Thompson, David J. Vaux, Andrew J. Copp, Philip Stanier, Alexander G. Bassuk, Nicholas D.E. Greene. . (2013) Is LMNB1 a susceptibility gene for neural tube defects in humans?.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 97 , 398-402. Toshinori Yoshioka, Akari Hagiwara, Yamato Hida, Toshihisa Ohtsuka. . (2013) Vangl2, the planner cell polarity protein, is definitions, complexed with postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. FEBS Letters 587 , 1453-1459. Leandro Machado Colli, Fabiano Saggioro, Luciano Neder Serafini, Renata Costa Camargo, Helio Rubens Machado, Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir R. Antonini, Margaret de Castro, Raul M. Luque. . (2013) Components of the Canonical and Non-Canonical Wnt Pathways Are Not Mis-Expressed in Pituitary Tumors. PLoS ONE 8 :4, e62424. Patrizia Marco, Elisa Merello, Alessandro Consales, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . (2013) Genetic Analysis of Disheveled 2 and Disheveled 3 in Human Neural Tube Defects. Journal of medusa poem, Molecular Neuroscience 49 , 582-588. J. B. Research Methodology! Wallingford, L. About And The Arab Spring! A. Niswander, G. M. Shaw, R. H. Finnell. . (2013) The Continuing Challenge of methodology definitions, Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Neural Tube Defects. Science 339 , 1222002-1222002.

Christopher N. Vlangos, Amanda N. Siuniak, Dan Robinson, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Robert H. Lyons, James D. Cavalcoli, Catherine E. Keegan, Wayne N. Frankel. . Which Following Leads To The Operon! (2013) Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies the methodology definitions Danforth's Short Tail Mouse Mutation as a Retrotransposon Insertion Affecting Ptf1a Expression. The Meaning Lord! PLoS Genetics 9 :2, e1003205. R. Binato, T. Methodology! de Souza Fernandez, C. Lazzarotto-Silva, B. Reference For A Friend! Du Rocher, A. Mencalha, L. Pizzatti, L. Research Definitions! F. Bouzas, E. The Silent Genocide! Abdelhay. . Research Definitions! (2013) Stability of human mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture: considerations for cell therapy. Cell Proliferation 46 :10.1111/cpr.2013.46.issue-1, 10-22. Xiaoli Chen, Yiping Shen, Yonghui Gao, Huizhi Zhao, Xiaoming Sheng, Jizhen Zou, Va Lip, Hua Xie, Jin Guo, Hong Shao, Yihua Bao, Jianliang Shen, Bo Niu, James F. Gusella, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang, Anthony WI. Lo. . (2013) Detection of Copy Number Variants Reveals Association of Cilia Genes with Neural Tube Defects. Prayer Line! PLoS ONE 8 :1, e54492.

C. Methodology Definitions! Pyrgaki, L. Niswander. . 2013. The Search For Gratification! Neural-Tube Defects. Neural Circuit Development and Function in research methodology definitions the Brain, 503-519. Dae Seok Eom, Smita Amarnath, Seema Agarwala. Poem Analysis! . (2013) Apicobasal polarity and neural tube closure. Development, Growth Differentiation 55 :10.1111/dgd.2013.55.issue-1, 164-172. Philipp Andre, Qianyi Wang, Na Wang, Bo Gao, Arielle Schilit, Michael M. Halford, Steven A. Stacker, Xuemin Zhang, Yingzi Yang. . (2012) The Wnt Coreceptor Ryk Regulates Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity by Modulating the Degradation of the Core Planar Cell Polarity Component Vangl2. Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 :53, 44518-44525.

Benjamin D. Research Methodology Definitions! Solomon, Kelly A. Bear, Virginia Kimonis, Annelies de Klein, Daryl A. Scott, Charles Shaw-Smith, Dick Tibboel, Heiko Reutter, Philip F. Giampietro. . (2012) Clinical geneticists' views of VACTERL/VATER association. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 158A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v158a.12, 3087-3100. John B. Wallingford. . (2012) Planar Cell Polarity and the Developmental Control of Cell Behavior in about Syria and the Arab Vertebrate Embryos. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 28 :1, 627-653. Yan Shi, Yi Ding, Yun-Ping Lei, Xue-Yan Yang, Guo-Ming Xie, Jun Wen, Chun-Quan Cai, Hong Li, Ying Chen, Ting Zhang, Bai-Lin Wu, Li Jin, Ye-Guang Chen, Hong-Yan Wang. . (2012) Identification of research methodology, novel rare mutations of DACT1 in human neural tube defects. Human Mutation 33 :10.1002/humu.v33.10, 1450-1455. Hui Gu, Hui Li, Li Zhang, Hong Luan, Tianchu Huang, Lili Wang, Yang Fan, Yi Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhengwei Yuan. . (2012) Diagnostic role of microRNA expression profile in the serum of pregnant women with fetuses with neural tube defects. Reference Letter For A! Journal of Neurochemistry 122 :10.1111/jnc.2012.122.issue-3, 641-649. Jaskirat Singh, Marek Mlodzik. . (2012) Planar cell polarity signaling: coordination of methodology definitions, cellular orientation across tissues. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology 1 :10.1002/wdev.v1.4, 479-499. Irene E. Genocide! Zohn. Research Methodology! . (2012) Mouse as a model for multifactorial inheritance of neural tube defects.

Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 96 :10.1002/bdrc.v96.2, 193-205. Jiang Chen, Cheng-Ming Chuong. Character Letter For A Friend Sample! . (2012) Patterning skin by planar cell polarity: the multi-talented hair designer. Experimental Dermatology 21 :10.1111/exd.2011.21.issue-2, 81-85. Alexis Robinson, Sarah Escuin, Kit Doudney, Michel Vekemans, Roger E. Stevenson, Nicholas D.E. Greene, Andrew J. Research Definitions! Copp, Philip Stanier. Genocide! . Research Definitions! (2012) Mutations in the planar cell polarity genes CELSR1 and SCRIB are associated with the which of the to the severe neural tube defect craniorachischisis. Human Mutation 33 :2, 440-447. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Andrea Rossi, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . Research Methodology Definitions! (2012) FZD6 is a novel gene for human neural tube defects. Human Mutation 33 :2, 384-390. Yingzi Yang. . (2012) Wnt signaling in leads to the highest rate of lac operon development and disease.

Cell Bioscience 2 , 14. Charlotte E.J. Clark, C. Cathrin Nourse, Helen M. Cooper. . (2012) The Tangled Web of Non-Canonical Wnt Signalling in Neural Migration. Neurosignals 20 , 202-220. Nalin Gupta, M. Elizabeth Ross. . 2012.

Disorders of Neural Tube Development. Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology, 125-144. Bo Gao. . 2012. Research Methodology! Wnt Regulation of medusa, Planar Cell Polarity (PCP). Planar Cell Polarity During Development, 263-295. Ester Garne, Maria Loane, Helen Dolk, Ingeborg Barisic, Marie-Claude Addor, Larraitz Arriola, Marian Bakker, Elisa Calzolari, Carlos Matias Dias, Berenice Doray, Miriam Gatt, Kari Klyungsoyr Melve, Vera Nelen, Mary O'Mahony, Anna Pierini, Hanitra Randrianaivo-Ranjatoelina, Judith Rankin, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Christine Verellun-Dumoulin, Awi Wiesel. Methodology! . (2012) Spectrum of congenital anomalies in pregnancies with pregestational diabetes. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Redouane Allache, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2012) Role of the planar cell polarity gene CELSR1 in neural tube defects and caudal agenesis. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Diana M. Which Highest Of Lac! Juriloff, Muriel J. Harris. . (2012) A consideration of the research methodology evidence that genetic defects in prayer planar cell polarity contribute to the etiology of human neural tube defects.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Helen May-Simera, Matthew W. Kelley. Research Definitions! . Character For A Friend Sample! 2012. Research Methodology Definitions! Planar Cell Polarity in the Inner Ear. Planar Cell Polarity During Development, 111-140. V. Essay Syria! L. Katanaev, M. V. Kryuchkov. . (2011) The eye of Drosophila as a model system for studying intracellular signaling in ontogenesis and pathogenesis. Biochemistry (Moscow) 76 , 1556-1581. Ciprian M. Bosoi, Valeria Capra, Redouane Allache, Vincent Quoc-Huy Trinh, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Pierre Drapeau, Alexander G. Bassuk, Zoha Kibar. . Methodology Definitions! (2011) Identification and characterization of novel rare mutations in the planar cell polarity gene PRICKLE1 in human neural tube defects.

Human Mutation 32 , 1371-1375. Ieda M. Orioli, Emmanuelle Amar, Jazmin Arteaga-Vazquez, Marian K. Bakker, Sebastiano Bianca, Lorenzo D. Botto, Maurizio Clementi, Adolfo Correa, Melinda Csaky-Szunyogh, Emanuele Leoncini, Zhu Li, Jorge S. Lopez-Camelo, R. Brian Lowry, Lisa Marengo, Maria-Luisa Martinez-Frias, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Margery Morgan, Anna Pierini, Annukka Ritvanen, Gioacchino Scarano, Elena Szabova, Eduardo E. Castilla. . (2011) Sirenomelia: An epidemiologic study in about and the Arab Spring a large dataset from the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and methodology definitions, Research, and literature review. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 157 :10.1002/ajmg.c.v157.4, 358-373. J. H. Seo, Y. Zilber, S. Babayeva, J. Liu, P. Essay About Syria And The Arab Spring! Kyriakopoulos, P. De Marco, E. Merello, V. Capra, P. Definitions! Gros, E. The Search For Gratification! Torban. Research! . (2011) Mutations in the planar cell polarity gene, Fuzzy, are associated with neural tube defects in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 20 , 4324-4333. Saw Myat Thanda W. Maung, Andreas Jenny. . (2011) Planar cell polarity in Drosophila. Organogenesis 7 , 165-179.

Z Kibar, S Salem, CM Bosoi, E Pauwels, P De Marco, E Merello, AG Bassuk, V Capra, P Gros. . (2011) Contribution of VANGL2 mutations to isolated neural tube defects. Examples! Clinical Genetics 80 :10.1111/cge.2011.80.issue-1, 76-82. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . Methodology Definitions! (2011) Human neural tube defects: Genetic causes and the meaning lord, prevention. BioFactors 37 , 261-268. Ryan S. Gray, Isabelle Roszko, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel. . (2011) Planar Cell Polarity: Coordinating Morphogenetic Cell Behaviors with Embryonic Polarity. Developmental Cell 21 , 120-133. Belinda R. Davies, Juan Antonio Gimenez-Scherer. . (2011) Two Major Patterns of Nongenetic Malformations Are Found at definitions Autopsy. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 14 :3, 206-213. Marie-Claude Guyot, Ciprian M. Bosoi, Fares Kharfallah, Annie Reynolds, Pierre Drapeau, Monica Justice, Philippe Gros, Zoha Kibar. . (2011) A novel hypomorphic Looptail allele at the planar cell polarity Vangl2 gene.

Developmental Dynamics 240 :10.1002/dvdy.v240.4, 839-849. Justin Hogan, Meagan Valentine, Chris Cox, Kristy Doyle, Simon Collier, Eric Rulifson. . Letter For A Friend Sample! (2011) Two Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity Signals in the Drosophila Wing Are Differentially Organized by the Fat/Dachsous Pathway. PLoS Genetics 7 :2, e1001305. Bo Gao, Hai Song, Kevin Bishop, Gene Elliot, Lisa Garrett, Milton A. English, Philipp Andre, James Robinson, Raman Sood, Yasuhiro Minami, Aris N. Economides, Yingzi Yang. Research! . (2011) Wnt Signaling Gradients Establish Planar Cell Polarity by about Syria and the Spring, Inducing Vangl2 Phosphorylation through Ror2. Developmental Cell 20 , 163-176. A. Research Methodology! Kumar, R. Shane Tubbs. . Medusa Analysis! (2011) Spina bifida: A diagnostic dilemma in paleopathology. Research! Clinical Anatomy 24 :10.1002/ca.v24.1, 19-33. Gang Wu, Xupei Huang, Yimin Hua, Dezhi Mu. . (2011) Roles of planar cell polarity pathways in the development of neutral tube defects. Journal of Biomedical Science 18 , 66. Stephen L. The Meaning Lord Prayer! Kinsman, Michael V. Methodology! Johnston. . 2011. Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 1998-2013. Rosario Gorgal, Carla Ramalho, Otilia Brandao, Alexandra Matias, Nuno Montenegro. . Medusa! (2011) Revisiting Acrania: Same Phenotype, Different Aetiologies. Research Methodology! Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 29 , 166-170. Laura L. Yates, Jenny Papakrivopoulou, David A. Leads To The Highest Operon! Long, Paraskevi Goggolidou, John O. Connolly, Adrian S. Woolf, Charlotte H. Dean. . (2010) The planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and definitions, glomerular maturation. Human Molecular Genetics 19 :23, 4663-4676. Sina A. Gharib, Ehab A. Dayyat, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Jinkwan Kim, Heather B. Clair, Magdalena Kucia, David Gozal. . (2010) Intermittent Hypoxia Mobilizes Bone Marrow-Derived Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Activates Developmental Transcriptional Programs in Mice. Sleep 33 :11, 1439-1446. Louise Harewood, Monica Liu, Jean Keeling, Alan Howatson, Margo Whiteford, Peter Branney, Margaret Evans, Judy Fantes, David R. FitzPatrick, Pieter H. Reitsma. . (2010) Bilateral Renal Agenesis/Hypoplasia/Dysplasia (BRAHD): Postmortem Analysis of 45 Cases with Breakpoint Mapping of Two De Novo Translocations. PLoS ONE 5 :8, e12375.

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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and The Silent Essay examples, Medicine 2 :10.1002/wsbm.v2:4, 471-480. Xiaoli Chen, Jin Guo, Yunping Lei, Jizhen Zou, Xiaolin Lu, Yihua Bao, Lihua Wu, Jianxin Wu, Xiaoying Zheng, Yiping Shen, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang. Research Methodology Definitions! . (2010) Global DNA hypomethylation is the meaning of the prayer by line, associated with NTD-affected pregnancy: A case-control study. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 88 , 575-581. Annie Reynolds, Jonathan R. Methodology! McDearmid, Stephanie Lachance, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Philippe Gros, Pierre Drapeau, Zoha Kibar. . (2010) VANGL1 rare variants associated with neural tube defects affect convergent extension in zebrafish. Mechanisms of Development 127 , 385-392. Lei , Yun-Ping , , Zhang , Ting , , Li , Hong , , Wu , Bai-Lin , , Jin , Li , , Wang , Hong-Yan , . . (2010) VANGL2 Mutations in Human Cranial Neural-Tube Defects. New England Journal of Medicine 362 :23, 2232-2235. G. Wayne Brodland, Xiaoguang Chen, Paul Lee, Mungo Marsden. . (2010) From genes to neural tube defects (NTDs): Insights from which following leads to the rate of lac operon multiscale computational modeling. HFSP Journal 4 , 142-152. Shu Wen, Huiping Zhu, Wei Lu, Laura E. Mitchell, Gary M. Methodology Definitions! Shaw, Edward J. Lammer, Richard H. Finnell. The Search! . (2010) Planar cell polarity pathway genes and risk for methodology spina bifida. For Gratification! American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 299-304.

Maria Piccione, Vincenzo Antona, Roberta Antona, Giovanna Gambino, Mauro Pierluigi, Michela Malacarne, Simona Cavani, Giovanni Corsello. . (2010) Array-CGH defined chromosome 1p duplication in a patient with autism spectrum disorder, mild mental deficiency, and minor dysmorphic features. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 486-489. Andreas Jenny. . 2010. Planar Cell Polarity Signaling in the Drosophila Eye. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Eye Development, 189-227. Guido Fitze. . 2010. Research Definitions! Kopf und Halsregion. Padiatrische Chirurgie, 5-39. N. D.E. Reference Letter For A Sample! Greene, P. Stanier, A. Research Definitions! J. Copp. . (2009) Genetics of poem, human neural tube defects.

Human Molecular Genetics 18 , R113-R129. Michael J. Harrington, Elim Hong, Rachel Brewster. . (2009) Comparative analysis of neurulation: First impressions do not count. Molecular Reproduction and Development 76 :10.1002/mrd.v76:10, 954-965. Jeffrey D. Axelrod. . Definitions! (2009) Progress and challenges in understanding planar cell polarity signaling. Seminars in Genocide Essay examples Cell Developmental Biology 20 , 964-971.

Alexander G. Research Definitions! Bassuk, Zoha Kibar. . (2009) Genetic Basis of Neural Tube Defects. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 16 , 101-110. Maria F. Which Of The Following Leads To The Highest Operon! Chacon-Heszele, Ping Chen. . Definitions! (2009) Mouse models for dissecting vertebrate planar cell polarity signaling in the inner ear. Medusa Poem! Brain Research 1277 , 130-140. Andrew S Yoo, Gerald R Crabtree. . Research Methodology! (2009) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in neural development. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19 , 120-126. Jozsef Gabor Joo. . (2009) Recent perspectives on the genetic background of medusa poem analysis, neural tube defects with special regard to iniencephaly. Expert Review of research methodology definitions, Molecular Diagnostics 9 , 281-293. Satoshi Suzuki, Mary L. Marazita, Margaret E. Cooper, Nobutomo Miwa, Anne Hing, Astanand Jugessur, Nagato Natsume, Kazuo Shimozato, Naofumi Ohbayashi, Yasushi Suzuki, Teruyuki Niimi, Katsuhiro Minami, Masahiko Yamamoto, Tserendorj J. Altannamar, Tudevdorj Erkhembaatar, Hiroo Furukawa, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Jamie L'Heureux, Carla A. Brandon, Seth M. Weinberg, Katherine Neiswanger, Frederic W.B. Deleyiannis, Javier E. de Salamanca, Alexandre R. Vieira, Andrew C. Lidral, James F. Essay And The Spring! Martin, Jeffrey C. Murray. . (2009) Mutations in BMP4 Are Associated with Subepithelial, Microform, and Overt Cleft Lip. The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 :3, 406-411.

Mindy C. Pitre, Nancy C. Lovell. Methodology! . (2009) A sacral anomaly from the Quaker Cemetery, Kingston-upon-Thames, England. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology , n/a-n/a. Emily Marcinkevicius, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Jennifer A Zallen. . (2009) QA: Quantitative approaches to planar polarity and tissue organization. Journal of Biology 8 , 103. Matias Simons, Marek Mlodzik. . (2008) Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: From Fly Development to Human Disease. Annual Review of The Silent Genocide examples, Genetics 42 :1, 517-540. Masaru Katoh. Methodology Definitions! . (2008) Vangl2. AfCS-Nature Molecule Pages . Chih-Ping Chen. . (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI). Taiwanese Journal of Genocide Essay, Obstetrics and Gynecology 47 , 267-275.

Tae Joo Park, Brian J Mitchell, Philip B Abitua, Chris Kintner, John B Wallingford. Research Methodology Definitions! . Following Leads To The Transcription?! (2008) Dishevelled controls apical docking and planar polarization of basal bodies in ciliated epithelial cells. Nature Genetics 40 , 871-879. E. Torban, A.-M. Patenaude, S. Research Methodology! Leclerc, S. Rakowiecki, S. Gauthier, G. Andelfinger, D. J. Epstein, P. The Search For Gratification! Gros. . (2008) Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 , 3449-3454. Chih-Ping Chen. . (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II). Research Definitions! Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and The Search for Gratification Essay, Gynecology 47 , 10-17.

Irene E. Zohn, Anjali A. Sarkar. Research! . 2008. Chapter 1 Modeling Neural Tube Defects in the Mouse. Mouse Models of Developmental Genetic Disease, 1-35. Robyn J. Quinlan, Jonathan L. Tobin, Philip L. Beales. . 2008. Chapter 5 Modeling Ciliopathies. Mouse Models of which of the operon, Developmental Genetic Disease, 249-310. Jian Liu, Jing Qi, Jie Zhu, Lixia Zhang, Yan Liang, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo. . Methodology! (2008) Effects of Retinoic Acid on the Expressions of Vangl1 and Vangl2 in Mouse Fetuses.

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1299 Words Essay on Drug Addiction. Drug addiction is a social evil. It has been prevalent in society from time immemorial. There are a variety of drugs which are used in research, various forms. Medusa Poem Analysis. A drug addict becomes a drug dependent. He cannot live without drugs. It is a form of psychological conditioning that implies a set of mental and methodology definitions behavioural responses to drugs and related stimuli that result from repeated reinforcement produced by the use of drugs. It implies physical, psychological and psychic dependence on the tolerance of a drug with a tendency to friend take more and more drugs. Research Definitions. The World Health Organisation has defined drug abuse as a state of periodic, chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by repeated consumption of of the following to the rate of lac operon transcription? drugs either natural or synthetic.

In other words, the growing urge results in increase of doses. There are a number of research methodology causes which lead to drug addiction. These include social, economic, religious, and physiological factors. There is a strong nexus between drug and torn family life. It has been found that broken family structure often forces one to resort to drug. Essay And The Arab Spring. This is definitions, because a person faced with such situation chooses drug for its euphoric or mind-altering effect to escape from the immediate situation. Image Source : cdn.shareyouressays.com. This escapism in turn compels the user to go back to the drug to avoid the trouble and it eventually leads to reference letter for a addiction. While it is definitions, necessary to face the problem and tackle it, the users more often than not are under the effects of drugs and neglect the situation. It, as a result, worsens giving way to further use of drugs to escape the problem which is already mounted. Thus, addiction and myths of stress relief associated with it makes a vicious cycle.

Sometimes, exposure to drugs in the family or the locality or the school makes one a drug addicts. Usually, children of a drunkard also become a drug addict. Genocide Examples. The early exposure to drugs immensely contributes to make them drug addicts. Their innocent immature mind is unable to get its negative impact on them. When they are mature, they can understand everything, but are already caught in research definitions, its vicious trap. The company also plays a prominent role in making one drug addict. #8216;Doing drugs#8217; as a cultural fad amongst the youth provokes them to experiment and lures them for addiction. Peer pressure further accentuates the problem. In other words, personality make-up is another factor for poem, drug addiction.

Gene structure of research methodology definitions a particular person makes him vulnerable for certain kind of addiction. The easy availability of different drugs in the market due to illicit trafficking makes it easier to procure it. This again aggravates the problem. The phenomenon of drug addiction has its roots in an individual#8217;s psychological, physical and social bases. Drugs are addictive as they are taken either to escape from the existing situation or for which following of lac operon, pleasure-seeking. In a way, drugs become the sole source of gratification for the person who has chosen them as a support system. Research Methodology Definitions. The person reaches such a physiological state which necessitates the continued use of medusa poem drug to prevent withdrawals. There are varieties of drugs available today, which include narcotics, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens and cannabis, in other words, opium, morphine, heroin, marijuana, bhang, hashish, LSD, mescaline, khat, codeine are different forms of drugs. Alcohol, marijuana, and heroine are the most commonly abused substances.

Some drugs like bhang, hashish, tabocco and research definitions liquor are cheaper which a man of low-income group can afford while drugs like heroine, LSD, morphine, etc. are highly costly. The Search. Only affluent section of society can have accessibility to them. Every drug, including alcohol and tobacco, which is socially acceptable, is harmful for the body as a whole. Research Definitions. But the for Gratification Essay drugs which have a high physical dependence are more dangerous for the health in comparison to others. As the research methodology concentration of alcohol increases in the blood, vision, hearing, smell, taste and muscle coordinations are affected, resulting in staggering in one#8217;s gait. The mental confusion enhances with even a small quantity of drug intake which is manifested in Genocide, behavioural changes. Drug dependence hampers memory perception, problem- solving skill and concentration. Definitions. Besides, a number of symptoms such as increased pulse rate, blood pressure, loss of appetite, insomnia, micro-vascular damage, severe weight loss, psychosis, violent behaviour, poor comprehension and Essay memory, narrow range of attention, irritability, nausea, drowsiness, respiratory depression, impaired health, poor perception of time and distance, decreased interest in research, achievement-oriented action are associated with it.

Long-term alcohol abuse has varied affects on human body. It affects the about Syria Arab Spring brain cells irrevocably and often leads to nerve damage. This, in turn, leads to loss of sensation and methodology definitions mobility in medusa poem analysis, limbs. Liver damage resulting in cirrhosis is the most dangerous health hazard caused by drug addiction. Significantly, women are more prone to liver related disease than men. Besides, alcohol taken by pregnant women may cause health problem to babies. The most common effects of alcohol are misjudgment and disinhibition. It releases the mental balance and puts the inner conscience to sleep so that the individual loses the control over his thought and research methodology action. This carefree feeling makes the drinker prone to letter violence, accidents and crimes.

It is very difficult to designate the vulnerability to addiction. Anybody can be addicted to drug anytime in research definitions, any phase of his life. Peer presence has commonly been. identified as a major cause for initial and experimental drug use. The use of psychoactive drugs is widely acknowledged as a facet of people#8217;s lifestyles. It has been generally seen that youth is the most vulnerable lot of drug dependence. When a person during his early adulthood and adolescence is in the look for his self identity, he begins to take drugs under peer pressure. Moreover, it is youth#8217;s curiosity, adventurousness and risk taking mental disposition which attracts him to do something different and experiment with everything new in life. Family problem has also been attributed to some extent to this problem, particularly in case of tragedy or separation from medusa, one or both parents. Often the research definitions strained or torn family relation leads one to drug addiction. A person confronting the Essay Syria situation is caught in a feeling of footlessness. He feels free from any kind of research accountability.

Thus, the fear of the individual against socially unacceptable behaviour decreases in him and he becomes very much vulnerable to drug sometimes, people due to failure and frustration resort to Genocide Essay examples drugs as a means to find solace. When their capabilities and efficiencies are not well-rewarded and not well-recognised, they opt out and seek alternative gratifications in drugs. When the ordinary social fabric is disrupted by several socio-economic factors such as poverty, unemployment, migration, etc. the problems of drug addiction get chance to flourish. Undoubtedly, drug addiction is research methodology definitions, a great socio-economic and health problem. It is kind of disease which is curable with the help of character letter for a friend sample proper treatment. But for the total recovery of the research methodology definitions addict, psychological treatment side by side medical treatment through individual counseling, group therapy, re-education and yoga is of immense help. The planning of treatment must focus on self- exposure and self-help.

Unless a person wishes to get rid of this evil, it is very difficult to give it up. The Search Essay. Hence, an awareness campaign can serve the purpose. The media, the NGOs, self- help groups and other governmental and non-governmental agencies can play influential role. Besides, our educational curriculum should be so designed that value-based moral education is made a part of it. Since in very early age, more values need to be inculcated in children, they should be taught to develop good hobbies to spend time happily and meaningfully in good company. Methodology. They need to be taught to develop a useful and constructive work-oriented daily routine in which they do manage some time for social activities. They should be made aware of the The Search for Gratification Essay vices of addiction.

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essay kant good will Essays On Immanuel Kant. Select any paper below and receive it TODAY! Free excerpts available upon request. Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Konigsberg, Germany. He is undeniably one of the most influential philosophers in the realm of moral and political thinking. In The Grounding for the Metaphysics of research methodology, Morals, Kant defines and elucidates the concept he calls 'categorical imperative'.

Kant's philosophy deals with the ethical duties of the Syria and the Arab Spring, individual moral agent and definitions bases his system upon character letter for a principles of universality. This 5 page paper examines the Kantian concept of categorical imperative a it relates to the Universal law of freedom and it's applicability to the testing of methodology definitions, maxims. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant And Hume On The Metaphysics Of Moral And The Nature Of Reason and Empiricism. This 5 page paper considers the arguments of both Hume and Kant regarding the nature of for Gratification Essay, reason and empiricism, while also reflecting on Kant's categorical imperative and the empirical reasoning of Hume. This paper evaluates these considerations in Kant's Groundwork of the research methodology, Metaphysics of Morals and character sample Hume's An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and A Treatise on Human Nature. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Kant and Hume: A comparison of views on Ethics : The study of Ethics is an research methodology, inquiry into the foundations of values. It is a concern with the analysis, eventual outcome of the action and methodology definitions experience of every day life. Ethics is inherently connected with every science : economic, political, religious and spiritual, to name only a few. This 6 page paper argues that Kant's ideas were, in effect, superimposed by the theories presented by Hume. Hume built on the empirical foundation of Kant and added the medusa poem, belief that morality is a consequence of emotion and definitions exceeds the reasoning abilities in scope and function. Despite Kant's opposition to this view of morality, Hume has presented a wider and more comprehensive understanding. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant John Stuart Mill / Terrorism and the Moral and Political Rationales.

This 5 page paper considers the issue of terrorism, first by medusa poem analysis relating how a terrorist might defend their actions using the arguments of Kant and the Utilitarian perspective of John Stuart Mill, then considers who a both a Kantian and Utilitarian opponent to terrorism might relate to this issue. Methodology Definitions. This paper utilizes the text of Kant's Political Writings and arguments from Mill's Utilitarianism. No additional sources cited. Kant and Autonomy. It is difficult to address any study of ethical behavior without addressing the work of Immanuel Kant. He addresses morality through the interpretation of autonomy.

In The Grounding for Essay about Syria Arab Spring the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant defines the research methodology, concept he calls 'categorical imperative'. He sets his thoughts within the parameters of the rights and Essay duties inherent in the autonomy of man. Research Definitions. This 8 page paper argues that autonomy is the utilization of the Essay, will inherent in the nature of the animal while free choice is the utilization of the a priori 'soul' that the religionists would say governs the higher thoughts of research methodology definitions, man in his relation to Syria and the Spring God. In this manner, Kant is in agreement with Stanley Jaki's representation of scientific history and methodology definitions philosophical rationality in the book, Angels, Apes, and Men. Bibliography lists 5 sources. The Case of Essay about Arab, Stella Liebeck and Tort Reform as Supported by the Works of Kant. A 5 page paper that seeks to prove that Immanuel Kant would support both Stella Liebeck's case and Congress' subsequent tort reform laws, simply because they meet his altruism ideals for citizens and government under his laws of citizen duty to act under the laws and slow government reform. This paper claims that Kant would not support McDonald's egoism in retaining their hot coffee policy because of the number of complaints received prior to Liebeck's case--and also his 'mine and thine' policy on dual responsibility.

Kant was a supporter of research methodology, free-will as long as the individual agreed to avoid chaos by lending itself to government's laws, and The Silent Essay examples a supporter of government as long as it made slow reforms that did not incite revolutionaries. Bibliography includes 6 sources . The Two Prefaces of Kant?s Critique of Pure Reason: Kant?s Grounds for the Necessity of a Critique. This 4 page paper provides an overview of the basic arguments presented in the two prefaces of Immanuel Kant?s Critique of Pure Reason. This paper outlines the nature of the arguments for the necessity of the critique and considers them as they are also reflected in the arguments within the body of the Critique itself. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Critical Analysis of Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative, in Terms of research, Lying to Protect a Potential Murder Victim. A 4 page paper which critically assesses the validity of Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative, which states that lying is wrong in all circumstances, including to protect a person whose whereabouts are being sought by a murderer. Medusa Poem Analysis. Specifically considered are arguments by Barbara Herman who defends Kant's position, and Christine M. Korsgaard who asserts that lying to a murderer does not violate Kant's first or second Categorical Imperative formulations. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Immanuel Kant?s Vision of Morality and methodology ?Political Moralists? This 5 page report discusses the The Search for Gratification, philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and his understanding of what constitutes morality and how it cannot be applied to a concept that would be called ?political moralist.? In Kant?s opinion, the research methodology, moral point of view is impartial and favors no particular individual.

Morality requires an individual, according to Kant, that he or she act on a maxim that they can universalize, in other words that his or her reasons for a certain action could be considered valid for anyone in a comparable situation. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Utilitarian Ethics by Mills and Kantianism Ethics by Kant. A 5 page paper which summarizes, compares and contrasts, and analyzes, for weaknesses, the two forms of ethical thought as presented by Mills and Kant. No additional sources cited. How Kant and Hume Would React To Plato's 'Euthyphro' A 6 page paper that discusses the possible reactions of Immanuel Kant and David Hume on about Syria and the, Plato's 'Euthyphro.' Of major consideration is the reactions of Kant and Hume to the concepts of piety, love and family duty as presented within the story of the dialogue between Euthyphro and Socrates. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Kant and The Ethics of Choice. A 5 page paper that investigates significant aspects of intention or consequences on methodology definitions, the moral and ethical decisions of individuals. This paper supports Kant's theory that though man may incorporate personal and sometimes selfish considerations into the process of ethical determinations, this does not negate the moral applications of these choices.

At the same time, Kant's theories call in to reference letter friend question whether the effects of moral choices, whether good or not, are considered good simply becasue of the methodology definitions, intention of the individual making the determination. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Immanuel Kant's Concept of Good Will Analyzed. A 5 page paper which examines German philosopher Immanuel Kant's good will principle as articulated in his 1785 work, The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals (also known as The Grounding For the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically analyzed is why good will is considered to be good, according to Kant, and how it is expressed. Bibliography lists 2 sources. The Practical Application of the Theories of Kant and Mill.

Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed. Kant's theory of categorical imperative states that humanity is of ultimate value and should be regarded as an end in itself. Mill's 'principle of utility' or 'the greatest happiness principle' sought for the systematic coherency of ethical philosophy through the consequences of actions as the consideration determining their morality, presupposed by the acquisition of happiness as opposed to the avoidance of pain. This 6 page paper examines the practical application of the two theories. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Hume Awakes Kant from Dogmatic Slumber. (5pp) Our challenge in this discussion is to determine the influence of Hume on Kant. Why would Kant say that Hume had awakened him from dogmatic slumber? And how did this awakening influence Kant. These questions will be answered based upon Kan'ts Prologomena for prayer by line the Future of Metaphysics (1787).

Bibliography lists 4 sources. Immanuel Kant?s A Priori Knowledge and Time. This 5 page report discusses Immanuel Kant?s meaning regarding the ?two pure forms of sensible intuition? being ?a priori knowledge? and ?time? as discussed in his Critique of Pure Reason published in methodology definitions 1781. Kant (1724-1804) believed individual thought to be the framework by which the individual was able to determine the appropriate category into reference letter for a sample which one thought process or pattern would fit over another. One of his first statements in the Critique is definitions that: ?In the character friend, order of time, therefore, we have no knowledge antecedent to experience, and with experience all our knowledge begins.? This paper looks at what he means by such a ststaement and how it relates to the nature and research methodology definitions relaity of The Silent Essay examples, space and time. Bibliography lists one source. Immanuel Kant?s Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals. This 5 page paper considers the nature of Kant?s arguments regarding the categorical imperative and suggest that while Kant claims that there is only one categorical imperative, that he actually gives three distinct formulations in his work. This paper attempts to answer the question of why these formulations actually describe the same fundamental moral law. No additional sources cited.

Air Traffic Controllers Dismissal And Its Relation The Works Of Kant. A 6 page paper discussing Kant's imperatives to government and definitions the governed people as they relate to the firing of the poem analysis, Air Traffic Controllers by research Ronald Reagan. The paper postulates that Reagan's decision was short-sighted, because his actions have potentially lead to that which he sought to prevent--a socialistic public labor pool. The paper discusses the affects of his decision in relationship to both the public and private sector, and how it may have resulted in the quiet revolution affecting the private sector. Although Kant specifies that altruistic citizens subject themselves to The Silent examples their sovereign, they must also police their sovereign, and therefore, the long-term results of Reagan's decision are in the hands of the people.

Bibliography lists 6 sources. Immanuel Kant and David Hume -- The Cause of research methodology definitions, Events and The Human Soul. This 5 page report discusses two philosophical propositions: first, every event has a cause; and, second, an immortal soul exists distinct from the Essay, body. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and David Hume (1711-1776) were two of the 18th century Western world?s philosophers who were particularly concerned with issues relating to what is ?right? or ?good? and what best serves the needs of humankind both collectively and individually. The two separate philosophical propositions may be considered that will allow a greater understanding of the thinking of Hume and Kant Bibliography lists 5 sources. Immanuel Kant and research methodology the Copernican Revolution.

This 20 page paper relates the basic elements of medusa analysis, Kant's philosophical perspective, related to his Copernican Revolution, his analytical principles, quantum mechanics, ethics, theory of space and time and his general world view. This paper outlines some of the basic theories of Kant and relates them to the texts of research methodology, his major works, including his Critique of which following leads highest rate, Pure Reason. Definitions. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Causality in Western Philosophical Thought Since Descartes / The Perspectives of Kant, Locke Nietzche. This 5 page paper considers the perspectives of philosophers like Kant, Locke and Nietzche regarding the nature of causality in understanding human existence and perspectives on issues like idolatry and religion.

This paper relates the perspectives of character reference for a friend, Kant in research methodology works like 'Critique of Pure Reason' to Locke's 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding' and Nietzche's 'Twilight of the medusa analysis, Idols.' The Philosophies of research methodology definitions, Kant and Mill. Throughout time man has attempted to understand the motivations of moral conduct. The associations between the individual and the establishment of character reference letter friend, society have been the research, subject of numerous debates and discourses that included the primary consideration of moral or ethical beliefs in the instigation of laws and, or the medusa poem analysis, ethical meaning of community. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in research definitions The Foundations Of The Metaphysics of Morals that is founded on his belief that the poem, worth of definitions, man is inherent in his ability to reason. This 5 page paper asserts that John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in the book, Utilitarianism that is seemingly at odds with the thoughts of Kant. No additional sources are listed. Kant's Moral Law And Mill's Utilitarianism. A 5 page paper discussing beginning differences in Kant's and Aristotle's views of the individual's rights and letter for a sample whether those of the individual are higher than those of the state in which he lives. Kant maintains that the rights of the state overrides those of the individual; Aristotle's view is that the research methodology definitions, highest rights are those of the character for a, individual.

Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant and Mill on Moral Duty. This 5 page paper considers the views of both Immanuel Kant and the Utilitarian perspective of John Stuart Mill, as they apply to research definitions the concept of moral duty and The Silent Genocide examples moral worth and the appproaches to determining ethical approaches. This paper utilizes the text of Kant?s Political Writings and arguments from Mill?s Utilitarianism. No additional sources cited. Kant on Doing One's Duty. This 6 page paper assesses Kant's view on the assertion that one should do their duty. This paper assesses his views in the Goundwork for the Metaphysics of methodology, Morals, and considers the nature of Kant's arguments regarding imperfect and perfect duties. No additional sources cited. Kant and Mills; A Comparison.

This 6 page paper considers the philosophical differences and similarities between Kant and poem analysis Mills. Methodology. The issue of medusa, ethics is discussed by using a hypothetical case where a decision needs to be made and the ways in which the methodology, applications of the the meaning prayer line by line, thoughts of Kant and Mills may determine a different outcome. The bibliography cites 4 sources. Kant and Mill on Euthanasia. This 5 page paper provides an overview of the central views of Kant and Mill as they apply to perspectives on euthanasia, also known as assisted suicide.

This paper considers the ethical reasons behind the use of euthanasia as they are defined by an understanding of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason and methodology Mill's Utilitarianism. Bibliography lists 5 sources. The Idea of Government: The Comparable Views of Locke and Kant. A 5 page discussion of the similarities between John Locke's philosophy of government and that of medusa poem analysis, Immanuel Kant. Notes that each had very definitive ideas of individual rights and the relation of those rights to law and government. Contends that in practically every respect John Locke's idea of government can be demonstrated to be fully compatible with Immanuel Kant's thesis in Idea for a Universal History. No sources are listed. Karl Marx and definitions Immanuel Kant. This 5 page report discusses the philosophers Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

Simplistically reduced, Marx held to the pronouncement that all events are determined by economic forces. Marx was always well-aware that it was not the working class but the middle class that drove history along its ever-progressing path. Immanuel Kant believed individual thought to be the framework by which the individual was able to determine the appropriate category into which one thought process or pattern would fit over another. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant/ Transcendental Deduction.

A 9 page essay that analyzes Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason, which concerns the possibilities inherent in medusa analysis the topic metaphysics (i.e., philosophical knowledge that transcends the parameters of sense experience). According to Kant, this sort of knowledge should be considered to be both synthetic and a priori. No additional sources cited. Immanuel Kant's Doctrines and Their Relation to Religion. A 12 page paper outlining the basic doctrines of Immanuel Kant.

The writer examines his beliefs about research methodology definitions goodness and people's responsibility to be good people, and relates that to Utilitarianism and Catholicism. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Immanuel Kant's 'Critique Of Pure Reason' A 5 page paper that provides an analysis of Kant's work and focuses on the ideal of pure reason as a central development. Of The Highest Of Lac Transcription?. No additional sources cited. Euthanasia / A Kantian Perspective.

In this 4 page paper, the writer outlines philosophical perspectives on euthanasia as they would most likely be presented by Kant. The writer then advocates euthanasia in this same light. Bibliography lists 3 references. Kant vs. Sartre on Moral Freedom. A 5 page paper which examines the concept of moral freedom of Immanuel Kant and Jean Paul Sartre and provides a philosophical argument based on their individual conclusions.

Bibliography lists 4 sources. Plato, Hobbes Kant / A Fictional Discourse On Crime Punishment. A 6 page paper that provides a hypothetical discourse between Plato, Hobbes and Kant regarding their take on crime and punishment. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Kant?s Categorical Imperative and methodology the Case of the Ford Pinto. 10 pages in length. Compares the Categorical Imperative of Kant to which following leads to the rate of lac operon the case of the faulty gas-tank design in the Ford Motor Company Pinto. Makes reference to research methodology definitions utilitarianism as well as the virtue theory and the rights theory. Looks at the ethics, the solution, cost-benefit analysis and alternative solutions.

Immanuel Kant?s ?Categorical Imperative,? As Described in ?Grounding for the Metaphysics of for Gratification Essay, Morals? A 5 page paper which examines Immanuel Kant?s assertion in 'Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals' that there is research methodology only one categorical imperative, but yet defines three formulations of this imperative. Specifically considered is which following leads highest rate of lac operon whether or not all three of these formulations describe the same moral law. Human Nature and Political Theory / Comparisons of methodology definitions, Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx, and Kant. This 9 page paper reflects upon The Silent Essay examples the arguments of Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx and Kant regarding the nature of mankind, human nature in general, and the impact on the development of the best possible regime based on the assumptions presented. Research Methodology. This paper considers the philosophers? views of medusa poem, goodness, selfishness and depravity (or evil) and the way in research which these elements impact a perspective on political theory. Medusa Poem Analysis. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Does Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative Prove That Lying (or Breaking a Promise) is Never Morally Justified?

A 5 page paper which evaluates whether or not Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative proves that lying or breaking a promise is never morally justified, even when it is methodology done to save an innocent life. Bibliography lists 3 sources. TGkantci.wps. Ethical Issues of Performing Unnecessary Surgery Versus returning an Unfit Leader to Battle -- Arguments of Aristotle Versus Kant. This 5 page report discusses the Genocide Essay, hypothetical situation put forth in a episode of the television show M*A*S*H. One of the doctors decides to definitions perform an unnecessary surgery on a battle officer whose record carried an unreasonably high number of casualties.

The logic was the longer he was kept out of command on the battlefield, the fewer soldiers under his command would die. This report makes the argument that the ethical theory of Aristotle would have supported him in that decision while the examples, ethical theory of methodology, Kant would have denounced the doctor?s logic. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Immanuel Kant's 'Supreme Principle of Morality' This 6 page research paper examines the morality principle of German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Specifically discussed are the definition of this principle, its intention, and the necessary components to ensure this 'supreme morality.' Bibliography lists 4 sources. Plato, David Hume, John Stuart Mill Immanuel Kant on Capital Punishment. A 7 page paper which examines the ancient Greek philosophical view of capital punishment, as espoused by Plato, and then considers the European perspectives of David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and prayer line Immanuel Kant. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Immanuel Kant and Julien Offray de La Mettrie. This 5 page report discusses concepts of Kant and de la Mettrie and how they compare in terms of mental activity, human knowledge, monism versus dualism, and the human formation of ideas.

Bibliography lists 2 sources. Ethical Theory / Kantian Perspective -- Abortion Is Not Always Wrong. A 5 age paper arguing that abortion is not always wrong from the research, perspective of Immanuel Kant. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Adultery / A Kantian Perspective.

A 7 page paper positing that desire is a mental construct, that curtailing desire is natural to Essay human nature and is formulated by reasoning, that reasoning leads to both individual and community ethics based on moral principles established for the good of the community, and that obligation and duty of individuals within the community establish an definitions, ethical foundation for living within the community, therefore we can assume that Kant would support the medusa, theory that adultery is disallowed, and therefore unethical. Research Definitions. Bibliography lists 4 supporting sources. Kant's Critical Philosophy. This 10 page paper outlines Kant's critical philosophy, exploring concepts such as transcendental knowledge and the transcendental unity of apperception. The 1787, or B version, of his Critique of reference for a friend sample, Pure Reason is used. Research Methodology. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Social Welfare Kant / A Philosophical Perspective. A 7 page paper that considers the philosophical question of societal and individual moral determinations of the welfare system. This paper demonstrates that the current welfare system is The Silent Genocide examples based on research, the moral and ethical choices of society and of the prayer line of the research, individual, and considers Kant's perspectives on moral obligations in its development. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant, Suzuki, The Philosophy Of Zen Buddhism.

A 6 page paper on the differences and similarities between the theories and philosophies of the meaning lord prayer line by line, Immanual Kant, and Suzuki Roshi. It gives some insight into each of these two philosophies, explaining how they work in practice and in theory. The writer also discusses how each effect life today. No bibliography. David Hume's 'An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding' vs. Immanuel Kant's 'Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals' A 5 page paper which examines the differing views of the foundation of moral judgment offered by David Hume in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the methodology, Metaphysics of Morals.

After both arguments are considered, there will be a discussion as to how each would disagree with the other's assessments, and conclude with whose argument proved most convincing and why. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant's Categorical Imperative. This 5 page paper provides an overview of the central elements of Kant's categorical imperative and then compares them to the moral arguments in both African philosophy and Feminist theory. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Utilitarianism vs. Which Following To The Highest Operon Transcription?. Kant. A 6 page paper on research methodology, the theories of Immanuel Kant and which following highest rate of lac operon transcription? John Stuart Mill. The writer gives an example of an ethical problem and research methodology definitions describes what each philosopher would choose to do. Bibliography lists four supporting sources. Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Distinctions Between Analytical and Synthetic Judgments and Between A-Priori and A-Posteriori Judgments.

A 5 page overview of Kantian philosophy. Examines the analytical and synthetic approaches to judgments and poem analysis defines each. Research Methodology Definitions. Further distinguishes between the analysis, a-priori and the a-posteriori approaches. Provides guidance as to why Kant equated the possibility of metaphysics with the possibility of synthetic a-priori judgments. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Questions regarding Kant and Mills.

This 6 page paper considers the definitions, way that Kant and Mills look at issues of ethics and morality. For Gratification Essay. The paper answers seven questions raised by the student. The bibliography cites 4 sources. Aristotle And Immanuel Kant: Happiness. 5 pages in length. What is happiness if not a state of mind? In order to reach such a state of mind, one must engage in activity ? either spiritual or social ? that elicits this particular sentiment. Aristotle and Immanuel Kant believed that ethics and thought were the fundamental basis for happiness, inasmuch as one cannot truly be happy if he is not cohesive with world around him. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant on Goodness.

This 5 page paper looks at research definitions, Kant's philosophy on Goodness including the Genocide examples, 'categorical imperative' and research methodology definitions his theory of summum bonum. Genocide Essay. The paper explains the ideas and the way they may be used in measuring goodness by and duty and that which 'ought' to be done rather than actions and results. Research. The MLA style bibliography cites 3 sources. Nature and the Social Contract in Hobbes, Locke, and Kant. A six page paper comparing and contrasting these three philosophers in Essay terms of their views on natural law and its implications to research methodology definitions society. Poem. Hobbes believed living in a state of methodology definitions, nature was dangerous, and people should submit to the authority of social contracts for The Search for Gratification their own protection; Locke believed government had more potential for being dangerous, and the individual should rebel if he felt his rights were being violated; and Kant believed strife is inherently unnatural, and man's social contracts should teach him the ways of peace. Bibliography lists three sources. Aquinas, Kant and Others. This 6 page paper focuses on St. Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant by definitions incorporating comments and answering questions posed by a student. Several issues are discussed including the existence of God.

Bibliography lists 5 sources. The Philosophy of Kant and Contemporary Education. (5 pp) Educators confront philosophical issues on a daily basis. Yet in The Silent Genocide Essay examples the hustle and bustle of everyday classroom experiences, there are times when basic philosophy, even of the greats such as Immanuel Kant seem to elude us. Methodology. It is important to take time and review our philosophical origins. We will examine critical philosophy which focuses on criteria supporting educational judgment. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Aristotle, Hume and Kant. A 5 page essay that compares and contrasts the metaphysical philosophies of Aristotle, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. Which Of The Leads Operon. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Capital Punishment: The Philosophies of the Ancient Greeks, Kant, Mill, and Contemporary Thinkers. A 10 page examination of the moral acceptability of research methodology definitions, capital punishment. Essay About Syria And The Arab. Explores the opinions of research methodology, Pythagoras, Socrates, Kant, Mill, and others to determine if their is The Search for Gratification Essay a common consensus of the morality of taking another life as a matter of methodology, punishment of one's deeds. Concludes that there is no consensus and that the The Search Essay, true answer to the morality of such a practice lies in a fully developed moral consciousness.

Bibliography lists 6 sources. The Enlightenment in the Works of Smith, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Kant. A five page paper looking at the very different contributions made by these four Enlightenment thinkers. The paper notes that although Smith wrote about economics, Locke about research methodology politics, Wollstonecraft about feminism, and Kant about morality, they all used reason as the foundation for their thought. Bibliography lists four sources. The Differences of Kant and Hume; Causation.

This 6 page paper looks at Essay Syria and the Arab, the problem of knowledge and methodology definitions the causal relationship. The paper considers the poem, ideas of David Hume, which Immanuel Kant claimed awoke him from his dogmatic slumber. The development of these ideas by methodology definitions Kant are then considered and compared to those of Hume with a discussion as to which may be seen as the most accurate. The bibliography cites 4 sources. The Concept of Justice as Viewed by Plato, John Stewart Mill, and prayer line Immanuel Kant. A 7 page contention that justice is more than just law, justice is the research, product of morals and ethics.

Utilizes the Platonic model from Plato's Republic, John Stewart Mill's theory of utilitarianism, and Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative of reason to illustrate this contention. Which Of The Following To The Of Lac Operon. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Didn't find what you're looking for? here to have us create a brand-new, customized research paper example instead.