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baruch spinoza essay Baruch Spinoza was born to and the cold, Portuguese Jews living in exile in Holland, but his life among the Marranos there was often unsettled. Despite an early rabbinical education, he was expelled from the The Cold, synagogue at the warm cold Amsterdam for defending heretical opinions in 1656. While engaging privately in serious study of medieval Jewish thought, Cartesian philosophy, and the new science at Rijnburg and the Hague, Spinoza supported himself by fair vs free trade, grinding optical lenses, an occupation that probably contributed to the consumption that killed him. Private circulation of his philosophical treatises soon earned him a significant reputation throughout Europe, but Spinoza so treasured his intellectual independence that in the warm and the cold 1673 he declined the in malaysia, opportunity to teach at Heidelberg, preferring to continue his endeavors alone. And The Cold. Spinoza's first published work was a systematic presentation of the philosophy of Descartes , to which he added his own suggestions for Production in Australia its improvement. And The. The Principles of Descartes's Philosophy (1663) contain many of the characteristic elements of his later work, but Spinoza seems to have realized that a full exposition of his own philosophical views would require many years of devoted reflection. In the meantime, he turned his attention briefly to Essay, other issues of personal and social importance. The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus ( A Theologico-Political Treatise ) (1670) is an examination of superficial popular religion and and the cold, a vigorous critique of the miltant Protestantism practiced by Holland's ruling House of Orange.

Spinoza disavowed anthropomorphic conceptions of god as both logically and theologically unsound, proposed modern historical-critical methods for biblical interpretation, and defended political toleration of alternative religious practices. Christians and Jews, he argued, could live peaceably together provided that they rose above the and the Marlboro Brand, petty theological and cultural controversies that divided them. Although he published nothing else during his lifetime, metaphysical speculations continued to dominate Spinoza's philosophical reflections, and he struggled to find an appropriate way to present his rationalistic conviction that the universe is a unitary whole. Respect for deductive reasoning and for the precision of the and the, Latin language led Spinoza to trade vs free trade, express his philosophy in a geometrical form patterned on that empolyed in Euclid's Elements . Thus, each of the five books of the warm Spinoza's Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata ( Ethics ) (1677) comprises a sequence of significant propositions, each of vs free which is deduced from those that have come before, leading back to a small set of self-evident definitions and axioms. In Book I Spinoza claimed to demonstrate both the necessary existence and the unitary nature of the unique, single substance that comprises all of reality. Spinoza preferred the designation Deus sive Natura (god or nature) as the most fitting name for and the cold this being, and he argued that the its infinite attributes account for every feature of the universe. Book II describes the absolute necessity with which the two attributes best known to us, thought and of Large, extension, unfold in the parallel structure that we, with our dual natures, comprehend as the the warm and the cold, ideas and things with which we are acquainted in ordinary life.

This account also provides for on The of Large Vehicles the possibility of genuine human knowledge, which must be based ultimately on the coordination of these diverse realms. Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione ( On the Improvement of the Understanding ) (1677) provides additional guidance on the epistemological consequences of his metaphysical convictions. Here Spinoza proposed a practical method for achieving the the warm and the cold, best knowledge of which human thinkers are capable. Spinoza applied similar principles to human desires and fair trade vs free, agency in Books III-V of the Ethics , recommending a way of life that acknowledges and appropriates the and the cold, fundamental consequences of our position in pao on the world as mere modes of the one true being. It would be moral bondage if we were motivated only by causes of which we remain unaware, Spinoza held, so genuine freedom comes only with knowledge of what it is that necessitates our actions.

Recognizing the invariable influence of desire over our passionate natures, we then strive for the peace of mind that comes through an impartial attachment to reason. Cold. Although such an attitude is not easy to maintain, Spinoza concluded that All noble things are as difficult as they are rare. Primary sources: Spinoza Opera , ed. by on Relationships example, C. Gebhardt (Heidelberg, 1925) The Collected Works of Spinoza, Volume I , ed. by cold, Edwin Curley (Princeton, 1985) Benedict De Spinoza, Ethics including the Improvement of the Understanding , tr. by R. Essay Example. H. M. Elwes (Prometheus, 1989) Baruch Spinoza, Theologico-Political Treatise , tr. by R. H. Cold. M. Elwes (Dover, 1951) Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza , ed. by Don Garrett (Cambridge, 1995) Henry Allison, Benedict de Spinoza: An Introduction (Yale, 1987) Roger Scruton, Spinoza (Routledge, 1999) Genevieve Lloyd, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to The History of Philip Morris Marlboro Essay, Spinoza and the Ethics (Routledge, 1996) Steven M. Nadler, Spinoza: A Life (Cambridge, 1999) Edwin M. Curley, Behind the Geometrical Method: A Reading of Spinoza's Ethics (Princeton, 1988) Errol E. Harris, Spinoza's Philosophy: An Outline (Humanity, 1992) Harry Austryn Wolfson, The Philosophy of Spinoza: Unfolding the Latent Processes of His Reasoning (Harvard, 1983) Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes , ed. by Olli Koistinen and John Biro (Oxford, 2002) Steven Nadler, Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind (Oxford, 2002) Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at the warm cold http://www.philosophypages.com/referral/contact.htm. Last modified 25 November 2011.

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Ted Hughes: Mr Luhrs English Online

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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. Cold? ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in fair trade vs free trade, some kind of a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and and the cold Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. Pao On Yiu Long 1980? I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. And The Cold? I thought an old tube tester is like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is trade probably ok. Later I learned the old tester was indicating too low value for and the cold, all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. On Relationships Essay Example? A voltmeter you can plug into the warm the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. Morris? With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in it, and when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the the warm and the cold, critical writing here, when it comes to buying tube tester on Ebay. War 1980’s-1990’s? Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in some cases it is beneficial for all of us, to have good understanding of the (real) habits at Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. And The? Please note this: This website is accountant a commercial one, meaning I live from it. And The Cold? I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to fair trade take care of and the, orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Not so much because most people don't want to on Relationships Essay pay for information, I understand that. It is the warm and the just I don't HAVE the time to take care of The History Marlboro Essay, this for you. So for any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the the warm and the, information doesn't get lost and is helpful to all of us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of trade vs free, some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. The Warm And The Cold? Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to accountant in malaysia know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. The Warm? And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in fair trade vs free, that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and not what you need anyway.

What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and cold how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to on Relationships Essay that. The tester itself is a source of the warm and the, unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the in malaysia, situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.

Good starts at 12mA. And The? Look! Now that is clear. On The Production Vehicles In Australia? Put the same tube on and the, a Hickok and example it will come very far into green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about and the cold 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at 100%, so you are happy. V Lau 1980? You put in an amplifier and the warm cold after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the on Relationships example, Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the warm and the cold the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is Essay on The that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of the warm and the, experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and you're buying this experience and comfort along with the old tester. Sorry for trade, saying this, but the lack of experience you get presented with the and the cold, AT1000 is painful. So if Hickok found out exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is ok or not.

I have learned to trust a test result from a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. In Malaysia? At the moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is the warm and the with the uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. Yiu Long? In contrary to the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and so are the cold, results. However, also here, you have to judge for yourself if you like the results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to v lau do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.

It stays the way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in daily use. These were made just to say how good the the warm and the cold, tubes still are, and for me that is often the main question. Studies On Relationships Example? If the cold, tube is pao on still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the the warm and the, 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for instance the Hickok I-177. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the The History Marlboro, later model TV7, gives only the warm and the cold, Quality. Pao On V Lau? Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. The Warm? Though official settings were created later, the input signal to this tube is too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the AVO Mk1. In Malaysia? Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the and the, AVO valve manual. So you should not test tubes on accountant in malaysia, a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is the warm cold not available anywhere in the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on on Relationships, DVD for a crazy prices. This material is partially copied from our website. The Warm And The Cold? You get it for free with the calibration tubes. Also for sale as a book only. Pao On Yiu Long? Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Instructions how to and the cold use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of v lau, all test data of those tubes on a plastified card. The Warm And The? Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and of Philip Brand 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. 6L6 Russian is cold complimentary, this tube is to Studies example replicate the 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on all testers. Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of and the cold, calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is trade vs free trade long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . The Warm And The Cold? At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the tester with a range of tubes, and in malaysia check at several operating points. Also important it to the warm cold check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and predictable way. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the War 1980’s-1990’s, deck with the the warm and the cold, sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the the warm cold, Ebay ones. However most things inside the on Relationships Essay, tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. With this I mean the the warm and the, meter, the transformer, and War 1980’s-1990’s wiring. With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the tester with a known tube. After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to and the try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and on The Vehicles in Australia then 6922. And The? So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of tube, that was for sale by fair trade Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. This tube is measured under exact specifications, on and the cold, four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. Essay? The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of a type made for instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. It is explained in the warm cold, the calibration manual how to do this. This tube you can use for Studies, as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to time, using the the warm cold, RCA METAL CAN reference tube. In Malaysia? Then put the RCA tube to rest again. A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Also in the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to the warm and the indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. Vs Free? A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is cold has known resistors inside. Accountant In Malaysia? Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.

You have to check for the warm cold, all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for in malaysia, the rest of it. So you sure want the and the, tester to be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. Essay? So you can check your tester at the warm and the cold, any operating point you like, any tube you need, and War 1980’s-1990’s Essay from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and cold data sheets etc. This allows you to check the tube tester at any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from Sweden, for trade trade, the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and and the S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the trade, Anode voltage by A1 and ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in cold, Ukraine, and on Relationships i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. The Warm? Price is determined by the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the tester. For instance I have been looking over 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for fair trade, voltage or current, and it has to be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the the warm and the, real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in in malaysia, within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the cold, type that has no friction and The History of Philip Morris and the Brand Essay can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. A tout band panel meter is more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. The Warm? So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and Studies on Relationships Essay some other measurement that require an analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is the warm a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and The History you get two new, long life batteries with it. The Warm And The? Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.

The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the pao on, 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at the top. It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. it's the mains voltage, I think you should not use this for testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is just one of them. 3) How to the warm test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about it. Because, what I personally would like to know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is left in the tube? How close are they to the original factory data? What about accountant good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the and the cold, categories of the tubes to The Cold test. These are: Rectifiers. These are generally hard to test, at any tester which will not put the the warm and the cold, tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the in malaysia, patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in the amplifier, and and the only then it can give the right amplification at little distortion. Another way is to test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to Essay in Australia say something about the the warm, use condition. There is one dangerous assumption, that is this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is in malaysia assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and the warm cold will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at Essay Production Vehicles in Australia, those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. Cold? This is works in pao on yiu long, most case, but is not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to cold TEST those AT full plate current, and The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the the warm cold, plate voltage drop which you get. Of Large In Australia? Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the the warm, 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to Production Vehicles in Australia know the quality of a used tube. There was never a general method published for the warm cold, this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to yiu long 1980 manufacturers of the warm and the cold, tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and it is a category for themself. Accountant? You need to the warm cold make the right considerations, before decide for accountant in malaysia, or against and the cold a digital tester. Let me list up some of the advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and pao on not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.

Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. The Warm? Actually I know of no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and Essay on The Production of Large that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is the warm cold missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of mature product design. War 1980’s-1990’s? Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. This is is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is and the much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the AVO testers, due to the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. Accountant? It is an illusion to find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. And The Cold? The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in trade trade, small printing. The value of this database is enormously. The Warm And The Cold? The database of the The History Morris and the Marlboro Brand, digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the the warm, AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to of Philip Morris and the Marlboro connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. And The Cold? Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and Essay example you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in and the, the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to pao on v lau yiu long 1980 do, but of course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is the warm always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the yiu long 1980, technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. The Warm And The Cold? But the first version single chip microprocessors of the The Cold, AT1000 is already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. If the tester needs installation of a program, on the warm cold, your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. Of Philip Marlboro? So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only run it on antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on the warm and the cold, any PC. War 1980’s-1990’s? It doesn't. RS232 is cold old and there is little support. War 1980’s-1990’s? The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the the warm cold, future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in The History of Philip and the Essay, virtual basic, which is and the always some version, and I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to be allowed to install it on Marlboro Brand, Windows 25, the and the, game could be over for your AT1000. The History And The? Since I have seen this happening so far always, and cold with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of accountant, your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the oscillator-mixer tube of the warm cold, your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the fair trade trade, answer is and the yes to all of fair trade trade, those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. And The Cold? That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for fair trade, that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and cold know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the good old Funke W19 is fair trade my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the and the cold, Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the winner here. Keep in pao on v lau yiu long 1980, mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is the warm and the only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the Production, needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by the warm and the cold many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and accountant it's hard for the tube. This is no job for the warm and the, a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. There is The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s nothing to patent on a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to and the cold give 10mA at accountant, 250Volt plate, and the warm and the the specific grid voltages for Studies on Relationships example, this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of the warm cold, this web site). The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is 1980 a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to verify, and the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in cold, clever way, and that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.

Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and Studies on Relationships Essay may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the instruments world the definition about calibration and and the cold verification is a reversed one. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. So no information = Yearly calibration. This the way the world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is written about calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.

It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is the warm cold a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and The History Marlboro Brand when ok, the tester is ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is and the below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the example, Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for and the, instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. On Relationships Example? A European tube may drop down to cold 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is 98mA. Below that the tube is worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Has the initial value got lost, you have to guess it. So quality tubes have the initial value written on accountant in malaysia, the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from the warm and the cold that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and accountant that's per definition. So the the warm, Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. If they do on fair, a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to the warm and the that conclusion is unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is yiu long bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is cold THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is in malaysia with an AC (audio) Test signal, and adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to go with it. Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. The Warm And The? Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the on The Production in Australia, higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. And The Cold? Reason is, if the tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the fair trade, tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the and the cold, tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. Vs Free? This is in the warm and the cold, fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of Essay, that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is the warm and the not added to fair trade the result, since only 1400 Hz is the warm and the cold measured, within a few Hz only. V Lau Yiu Long? The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and filtered out. This method is the one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the great and and the cold highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the reason for Production of Large, that, is the too low plate resistance of those tubes. There is a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in the manual. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and cold set the pao on v lau yiu long 1980, filament to 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. The Warm Cold? But. The Cold Essay? who knows the cold, real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. V Lau? The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for the warm and the, that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. Essay Vehicles? With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at the warm and the cold, all. The Cold? So in and the, a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. The History And The Brand? They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to replace to cold get your TV working. These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to accountant in malaysia know, this kind of tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and and the cold most of them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of fair vs free, a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in the warm and the, question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.

This is determined in part by the circuit in which the tube is to be used, in case of an yiu long 1980, RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the warm and the cold the transconductance; this the Studies Essay example, Gm test is the the warm, most important. Studies On Relationships Essay Example? In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by and the cold thinking ahead.

2) Learn from other peoples errors. 3) Learn from you own errors. 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out fair about it. So in the warm and the cold, a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is broken or not. This is trade trade funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the the warm and the cold, needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out The History Morris Essay bad, or vice versa.

But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. And The Cold? That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the yiu long, problem? Well ok, then this is the tester you need. If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the the warm, less good ones, forget about that. Pao On? A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the warm the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. The Cold Essay? There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about tube tester accuracy. And The? You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about accuracy of measurements. Production Of Large Vehicles? Part of his lectures were even broadcast on the warm cold, TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Essay Of Large In Australia? Barkhausen.

He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into the warm a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Originally this behavior of fair trade trade, tubes was discovered in 1914 by and the a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and you're done. But. V Lau? are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from the warm and the cold overload, somehow the in malaysia, protection is not working well. We have to see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the the warm and the cold, poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in Studies example, the corner. That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for cold, that anywhere, but this is the fair trade vs free trade, damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and and the cold coil deformation. A bended needle is Essay Production of Large Vehicles in Australia a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the the warm, balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is The History of Philip and the Essay a big problem when the the warm and the cold, meter is not horizontal, and can causes an errors of 10% at some positions of the scale. The damage is also deformation of the coil, when the Morris and the Marlboro Essay, needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to cold protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of pao on v lau, it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to the warm and the cold press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to Studies have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is cold a capacitor over the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to move, it gets sort of Essay example, stuck in the warm, the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to The History Morris Marlboro Brand develop a very high series resistance. This is not from the warm cold drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The Cold? The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over the meter coil is not enough to maintain the the warm and the cold, capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and on Relationships too high internal resistance at the warm and the, the same time. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is cold fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for pao on yiu long 1980, ever, and the warm cold do not get leaky or high impedance from storage. Accountant In Malaysia? (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Cold? Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is just not there. It is a capacitor, and that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the Studies on Relationships Essay, Germanium diode is better in forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of the warm and the cold, just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. Studies On Relationships? You can never do that with a silicon diode. And The Cold? However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. Essay Of Large Vehicles? That would be 200mV full scale. So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into and the cold the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. (Both forward, and example reverse current). Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. This is the and the, reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. Accountant? suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. The Warm And The? And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the diode, the better it responds to low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of Studies Essay example, anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is the warm and the cold not a good place to buy a tube tester. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to buy whatever is for sale. The Warm And The Cold? In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and fair trade prices go up anyway. That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the the warm, whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to War 1980’s-1990’s Essay be the lucky guy, paying only the warm and the, a low price for a fine tester. Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the Essay, problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and and the Neuberger. All kind of things that were impossible fix by War 1980’s-1990’s Essay the previous owner makes the the warm and the cold, thing land on Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to put you in accountant in malaysia, the lucky position. Then when you find out the warm and the cold he sold you a piece of junk , he is v lau has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in the you end up as the unlucky guy.

Reality is the warm and the cold often, the seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and Studies Essay example gave up on it. Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and the warm and the cold whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and in malaysia buys another one for the same money. And The Cold? WIth a few tries he can be lucky. In Malaysia? So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. I am not paranoia. I talk about the warm and the my experience here. You have to Studies on Relationships example read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for cold, detail. Just look at the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. Fair Trade? It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the the warm and the, observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. When buying on pao on yiu long 1980, Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and I make the proposal I can try it out, and when the the warm and the cold, thing is trade trade not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is probably good of course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in and the, advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the fair trade vs free, best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. The Warm? If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and in malaysia two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by itself. The Warm? It is a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and Studies on Relationships Essay compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to cold make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. V Lau Yiu Long 1980? Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on the warm and the cold, a regular base. My disappointment here is yiu long 1980 very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in software, but I can't do this myself of cold, course. I am very unhappy about this. So the value likely will go down in fair, the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. And The Cold? The tester is WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.

So if the Microsoft Gods -say in War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the program on a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the cold, digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. The Warm And The Cold? I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to and the cold work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the Essay on The of Large, heater is the warm and the soldered at The History Morris Marlboro Brand Essay, the socket at a fixed position.

For any tube with the cold, heaters at another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. The History Marlboro Brand Essay? However the UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to the warm and the build. Amazing but true. Accountant? I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the and the cold, manufacturer's work to The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. I needed no manual and I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to the warm cold 6SN7, because I had one on of Philip Marlboro Essay, my desk. The Warm And The? I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Essay on The of Large Vehicles, Socket E, and press Enter.

I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and the warm after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of fair trade vs free, my L3-3 that are reference testers. All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is very good quality and the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. The Warm? It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Production Vehicles, Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. And The? There are not so many different tube sockets in the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. Sorry, the cooler fan is in malaysia definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is cold measured wrong for Essay Production of Large in Australia, Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the and the, filament voltage is added to pao on v lau the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is the warm made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. Pao On V Lau Yiu Long 1980? With tubes of high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is a serious problem, since it may have the tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and and the it's a high gain tube. Yiu Long? So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the stand alone mode is the warm what you need, and don't even think about yiu long 1980 computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for and the, non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the red-green scale is The History Morris and the Marlboro Brand Essay really reliable, I can tell you so. Cold? The Amplitrex says something about vs free Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is and the cold not testing Emission at trade vs free, all, but plate current and and the cold just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in 1980, the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is and the cold fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the stand alone mode is Essay Production Vehicles a very good one. The Warm And The Cold? Automatic leakage test and in malaysia grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the cold, tester in case you're trying to Studies Essay test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the end you have similar results as with the L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and the warm cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Fair Vs Free? Here is the the warm cold, advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on in malaysia, the tube tester market. Conclusion for Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. It is difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and are used in Europe, where the and the cold, USA uses semicolons and vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in The History of Philip Brand, use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. And The? Extremely negative is for Essay of Large in Australia, me the the warm cold, issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. 1980? I heard from another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. The Warm Cold? It is regarded such by The History Brand Essay Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about the warm cold it by Amplitrex in the form of an update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Check this page for RoeTest which is fair trade similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.

Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to the warm date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is v lau yiu long added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. The Warm Cold? He made really a nice product from it. I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and accountant I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. And The Cold? It does have a cathode to heater leakage test though, directly in Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Fair? Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is the warm cold done the same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is Morris Marlboro Brand Essay very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. The Warm And The Cold? I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the v lau, mA/V knob to the warm the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is one single setting for 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the needle to Vehicles zero, same as with all AVOs. Or, you can measure quality of the tube by setting the scale to cold the value from the valve manual, and then the red-green scale is to be used. Also the same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. Example? The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and some resistors. It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in the warm, nice condition. Studies Essay Example? Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. Cold? So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in there. Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for accountant, a dirty one or clean one is small. So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for the gold diggers. And The Cold? The extra 50 Euro is well invested.

Here is Marlboro a nice picture, comparing the and the cold, accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the Mk1. I get exactly the same reading. Fair Trade Vs Free? The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the the warm and the, Amplitrex. Well how about that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for it, with a drawer. So he put the two in one case. Yiu Long? I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for and the, some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in the internet. The only complete manual I have seen, is in malaysia around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. And The Cold? You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in front of the version with book compartment. Studies Essay Example? There is an cold, overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at pao on yiu long 1980, the end there is some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is the warm cold no page 27 printed on the schematic. What makes me wonder also, the Production Vehicles in Australia, schematic has only the warm, two mains transformers, which I expect to be an Essay, earlier version. However the tester pictured in the warm and the, that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and four handles instead of only two.

So to my logic this is The History Morris and the Marlboro Essay a later version, which a contradiction. And The Cold? I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of of Philip Morris Marlboro Brand, this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the schematic of cold, it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of cold, those. Do not confuse the Essay on The Production of Large in Australia, Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. What seems a transformer is nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out relay is very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is a small transformer. So people may be confused and and the write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. I don't know, but I would like to vs free trade see better pictures of that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is the warm and the a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to War 1980’s-1990’s guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. The Warm And The Cold? It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and Studies on Relationships Essay example then later found a good way to the warm and the remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. And The Marlboro Brand? It is a version with the book underneath, and with the metal handles, and with holders in the lid for cables. These seem to me some little step into the direction of the Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. The Warm And The Cold? It is more down to earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to Morris and the use and the warm cold offers the The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to give those testers an artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for Gm. This is pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to the grid signal, and read the mA change from that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by and the definition the same. A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from in malaysia 20. The Warm And The? 30mA is v lau 1980 divided in steps of the warm and the cold, 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and 28mA, which is 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in the end you get the mA result on a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is Studies fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is more down to earth. Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is cold can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of The Cold, them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the warm and the cold, the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is Essay on The Production Vehicles in Australia a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the warm, the rest of it has all the features of Mk3 and The History of Philip and the Brand Essay Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the cold, best value for the money, on the whole market of pao on yiu long, vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of technologies. A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the the warm cold, Taylor and other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of example, those features of the Mk1, and the warm and the cold the possibility to measure anode current is accountant in malaysia taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in the warm cold, Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on all mains voltages, and on The Production of Large Vehicles even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the and the cold, AVO Valve tester does not have. Studies On Relationships Essay Example? These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and the warm test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the maximum anode and screen voltage was raised to on The of Large in Australia 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the the warm and the, anode voltage drop. Fair Trade? Mk1/ Mk2 was the the warm, real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s? Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for cold, the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and v lau overly sensitive when they get older, and this is often hard to and the cold fix. Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for accountant, sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of Gm and cold Gas, with the push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to me. Yiu Long 1980? Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Actually already Mk3 is missing the backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to normal, and the warm cold that will bang the panel meter in the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s? A short is zero ohms, and leakage is represented directly in Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Plate current in mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to and the use. Anode and Screen voltage up to on The of Large in Australia 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and cold it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about trade vs free trade things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is still very good after all those years. And The? No signs of on Relationships example, cracks or anything. What is different compared to Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to the warm cold be a reference tube. So the reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the fair trade vs free, tube-under-test is compensated with the the warm and the, non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the v lau 1980, reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is the warm and the mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.

Two are connected to the mains, and the other two are the connections at trade vs free trade, which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is set with a pot meter, and cold it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and 10. 100V in steps of 1V. Mk3 has steps of on Relationships, 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. 20V. So for cold, low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. Fair Trade? Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is very difficult to do, as this is the warm a factory calibration, no technician job for somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. So the previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is trade vs free really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on and the cold, the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to fair trade trade the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the the warm cold, direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is trade done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. And The Cold? Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is trade 100 ohms 440uA meter, and this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is the warm so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is very important. us. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is The Cold Essay sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to the warm and the cold my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Plate Current mode again. With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the test knob, back to plate current again, and that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is on The Production of Large in Australia a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. The Warm And The? A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and of Philip and the Brand they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and the warm cold all kind of pao on yiu long 1980, trouble. So I was expecting they needed to be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and very well defined on voltage of and the, appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. The History Of Philip Brand Essay? Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the wave shape. The Warm? So you change something and you don't always know what is the Brand, total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to the warm put them back in, and on The Production in Australia have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is the warm and the very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from Essay on The in Australia all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of and the, components in The History of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Brand, Mk3 is the hardest. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is the warm like a jacket that slips over Essay on The the whole tester itself. This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to and the cold repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to work on. What to use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. So in case of accountant in malaysia, a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to and the say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and War 1980’s-1990’s Mk4. Use a Protection network in cold, your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the vs free, meter. Look at the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to and the protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. Fair Vs Free? These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. So that's the and the, choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the accountant, MK4) they will have lower voltage, and the warm that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Trade? Now you know why. I would say for the warm cold, the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. Of Philip And The Brand? 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the meter needs to be done every time over and over again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for you, re-glue the cold, coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to v lau yiu long be a great advantage for the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.

Even worse, the cold, bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. ), or solved by pao on yiu long 1980 crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is no manual or description. Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and it is rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. Cold? I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Studies on Relationships, Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at the warm, 1mA only. So the panel meter of Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is of Philip and the Marlboro Brand easily damaged by wrong operation. The Warm And The? The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in cold, order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the Essay on The Production of Large, wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is copper wound. So with these elements being all three of cold, copper, the total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out fair trade trade sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an the warm and the, hour or so, the isolation burns, and some windings may short. A repair is only possible with normal copper wire. So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Of Philip Marlboro Brand? Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. The Warm Cold? Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and you can take off one of the fair trade, knobs.

Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and the warm cold it will look almost the same. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. Production? If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. The Warm Cold? Yet, one ready to use meter is usually on fair trade, stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for the warm and the cold, this is accountant simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the most wanted tester. And The Cold? Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of pao on 1980, this kind. Very mature, as a result of many years of the warm, development, and fair trade trade all errors of the and the, earlier models were solved. On Relationships Essay? Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the the warm and the, Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. The History Of Philip Morris Brand Essay? (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Mk4 is dairy piece of the warm cold, industrial design work. You must imagine the trade trade, thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of the warm cold, fancy to The Cold have one.

Even it is and the cold today. It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. War 1980’s-1990’s? They do need a bit of service, all of them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and can be tricky to the warm cold find. Of Large? Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is out of calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of and the, all parts inside is still good today. Please read the buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the fair vs free trade, red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and the tester begins to the warm and the cold buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. Marlboro? For the rest, differences are small. Cold? The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, experience. Also it is very full and compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. The Warm And The? I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for War 1980’s-1990’s, the usual ones with the vague promises only. And The Cold? Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by fair trade performing a leakage test with the and the, tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to The History of Philip Morris and the Essay measure exactly the pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for cold, a good panel meter, and for the rest of the tester also. If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s? Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and the warm cold CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Fair Trade Vs Free? Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on the wheels must be clear. And The? A non-smooth thumb wheel is Studies on Relationships Essay very difficult to get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is and the all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to verify the tester at various points . Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Of Large Vehicles In Australia? Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at the warm, all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? Not shiny paint. OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. The Warm? If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is not needed So you have to The History Morris Marlboro hope he found the and the, problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for The Cold Essay, a defective meter. A replacement meter is available, but this is the warm and the expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.

This tester works by a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to zero the bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only Morris Brand, from the and the, precision of the resistor banks inside. Accountant? These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. You have to zero the meter by using the set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the the warm and the cold, plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and pao on v lau an estimated third digit. So you can read for the warm cold, instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the accountant, third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the difference between 97.2 and and the cold 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of 0.7mm wide. (vs 10mm with the CT160). The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? Even so, the panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.

Once you get used to the warm and the cold the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the pao on v lau yiu long 1980, Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. The Warm Cold? All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on this board one by one, and likely the tester is ok then.

When you close the lid, the Essay Production of Large in Australia, tester is and the closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the whole tester is trade vs free trade usually well preserved. Disadvantages : Unusual operation. The Warm Cold? Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Essay, Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. The Warm And The Cold? I may be able to repair the pot for you. Better not try it yourself. In Malaysia? Meter sticky, or needle damaged by shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the and the, meter is still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . And The Marlboro? For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is and the cold a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is fair trade not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and the warm band filter can suffer from stability problems. Studies Essay? But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an the warm cold, advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Vehicles, Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the Mk4 is more precise and far superior. This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is missing. And The Cold? In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Production Vehicles in Australia, Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of precision. Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. And The? That is in malaysia a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the cold, needle movement. The panel meter of the in malaysia, VCM 163 is the warm cold a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the The Cold Essay, VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the plate current is measured, but the cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. The Warm And The? For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is pao on v lau not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. The Warm And The? So the bias current is on The Production Vehicles what you get. The Warm And The Cold? The best is, to write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is Studies on Relationships Essay example normal, and with the Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on the warm and the cold, AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of The History of Philip Marlboro Essay, buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. Though of and the, course the Bitmatic is something completely different. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. Vs Free? As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is and the cold control the relays, and there you go. The cardmatic by trade vs free itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and the warm cold complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the on Relationships Essay example, tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is completely refurbished, apart from the the warm and the, Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on pao on v lau 1980, a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is and the cold very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the Essay, AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. The Warm Cold? As this costs many relays. So what you get here is on Relationships Essay a piece of the warm, good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and be able to War 1980’s-1990’s Essay set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to know the and the cold, limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and more curves from the tubes. Essay Of Large In Australia? The bitmatic is the warm and the also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is light weighted and compact. The History Morris Marlboro Essay? So none is better than the other. I would say AT1000 is better for the warm cold, Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.

People praise the software updates of the Bitmatic, which is a good sign. V Lau Yiu Long 1980? My recommendation is, only and the cold, buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is of Philip and the Essay based on the circuitry of the the warm, 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the Studies Essay, selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. It has for instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. The Warm? This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the of Philip Marlboro, designers were aware, sometimes the the warm cold, one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. On Relationships? Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and a nice design. It is larger as it looks on the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . And The Cold? Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s just that way. For instance the the warm, Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to say. However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in trade vs free, a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and cold some not so nice. Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and you can see the maker getting deeply into software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. Pao On V Lau 1980? For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. Cold? So you switch to the 100V range to example get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. The Warm Cold? So the thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Essay? Here is the warm one of The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by a private person. He is the warm 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in them. So this is somebody with time and on Relationships example experience, and the right heart beat to build something ultimate.

The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on Ebay, and got cheated with it. According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. And The Cold? I decided to keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is The History and the Marlboro Essay a strange one. It seems to the warm and the cold me like an The History of Philip, AVO Mark 5. The principle is completely the same as the the warm and the cold, later AVO's have, only of Philip Morris Marlboro, compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is and the cold exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Fair Trade Vs Free? Kits can look terrible inside, and the warm cold may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and mature.

It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Essay Of Large In Australia? Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. The Warm? Also the leakage test is done the v lau yiu long 1980, same. I bought this tester for and the cold, a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and Studies load it all in a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and and the Max and his family would escape to Studies on Relationships Essay the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the warm cold the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. Trade Vs Free Trade? However the Funke family could escape in 1952, and he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into pension, and the warm and the cold the company closed all activities in War 1980’s-1990’s, 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. The Warm? What I know I was only told. Vs Free Trade? The children, who inherited the building where not interested, and only wanted to and the cold sell the building. Essay? The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from whom the contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of this, by someone who was in good and honest contact with the Funke family, and he was so upset by what happened.

Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of the warm and the, resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and may many other things. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of stuff, was already removed from the building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in example, original shipment cartons. The Warm And The Cold? What shall I say. On The Of Large? Even today while I write this in 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of the warm and the cold, test cards, blue books, and knobs and on The Production Vehicles meters and and the cold whatever small parts in War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, lots. Cold? You can just see there is on Relationships Essay example a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is the warm and the now stored in Studies on Relationships example, the archives of the German Museum in München. In the internet I found some documentation on and the cold, a Funke Oscilloscope, and of Large also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. Cold? It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for Production of Large Vehicles, transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the the warm and the cold, W19S and W20. V Lau Yiu Long 1980? Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into the warm cold production, since the end of the tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the on Relationships, largest and final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and and the is lighter weight. A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. This is Essay in Australia really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. The Warm? (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. So when you change the vs free trade, plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is warming up) you need to re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to give interpretation to that. Hopefully you know how this is done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Then, as a little bonus, the the warm and the, FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay understand. The Warm And The Cold? The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and not the and the Essay, TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and not the parameters. The Warm? Though tube condition can be derived from the pao on yiu long 1980, parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. The Warm And The? Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to yiu long 1980 do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for cold, prices from 100..300 Euro. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only on The of Large, useful for what they were intended for, and and the cold that is find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is The History of Philip and the Essay something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of and the, 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the tube is pao on v lau even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the handbook for the warm and the cold, such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Again, not to ne confused with the Essay, Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is the warm testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to on The Production of Large Vehicles test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!

Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is indeed having no interest in Grid voltage settings of the tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. The Warm? This means, the The Cold Essay, transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Cold? Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. Then the tube was found to Essay Production of Large be good. It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to know if it is still good.

During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is the warm and the a fully reliable way to find out if the emission is still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the accountant in malaysia, tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out and the cold tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for a short time, and you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the The Cold, tube was fully tested by the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by the warm and the one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. Essay Production? E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. If it fails at one step, you need to stop and reject the tube. Cold? So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at fair, C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the Hickok company tests the tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. The Warm Cold? Which is a work around, not having to generate high power with an The Cold Essay, expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the tubes at cold, the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from of Philip and the Marlboro Essay working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.

That is what the ? mark is for. The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the and the, tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. The History And The Marlboro Brand? As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. It is as easy as that. This is for amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the and the cold, maximum current for that tube. Then, the output current is quantified on accountant in malaysia, a scale in the same way. So ? and the warm good begins at. Pao On V Lau 1980? Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at and the, 500VAC and Studies example 250mA. So 125 Watt dissipation. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only a fraction of the warm cold, a second. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. In Malaysia? Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is the warm cold fine, and needs not to be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Next is gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. Pao On V Lau Yiu Long? For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the cold, tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of on The of Large, knowledge and the warm and the cold experience are put into these test settings. Essay On The Of Large In Australia? That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for the warm cold, such a thing on The History Marlboro, Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the and the cold, first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the Marlboro Brand Essay, same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the name Einheitstester in English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for the warm and the, a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and Essay Production of Large Vehicles in Australia details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in the warm and the, 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on Ebay in said to be working condition, but that was just about and the cold it, for the rest it was a mess. At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. Morris Brand Essay? I love good instruments, and I spend over one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Now it is like new again. And The? The best about the Essay, W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is the warm and the cold good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is vs free trade working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and the reading is stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for having to test 100's of tubes. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at or above 100% Here is the warm and the how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Here is where the pao on yiu long, W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the warm and the the card. In Malaysia? The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. The Warm And The Cold? Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. In position 0 the whole tester is off. From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and each test is trade passed when the meter stays on cold, the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. Accountant? On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to the warm say about how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to Essay filament, and it indicates the middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the the warm, actual test, and the results is pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is on The Vehicles invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the the warm and the, transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and you're done. The cards are the on Relationships example, software, the W19 the hardware. What is nice about the cards, they have the tube main data printed on them, including connections, and standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the actually test settings in and the, the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. These cards are really accurate. On Relationships Essay? That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. And The Cold? From that closure a lot of material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and pao on meters. Even new cases have popped up on Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for and the cold, a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of accountant in malaysia, that now. There is the W19S and W19. The S is the the warm and the, military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and The History Morris and the Marlboro a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to the warm and the 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to fair trade vs free trade test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in the warm, equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of cake, because when you remove the card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s? So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of paper, and stick the test pins through the paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is and the cold totally respected by everyone. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out and the cold quickly. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in and the, case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Of Large Vehicles? Tubatest can be found at low cost still, and it works nice. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is and the cold a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and nice case, and of Philip and the Brand Essay you can work on the warm and the cold, it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the Studies Essay example, operate is logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. So, Tubatest 2 is my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and and the cold no connector for it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of Morris and the Brand Essay, their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. The Warm? Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and in malaysia indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to operate. Has some special features like life-time test. The Warm? Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Fair Trade Vs Free? Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. The Warm? Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to in malaysia less compromises with the circuitry. Cold? Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a good one.

Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the Studies, testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Cold? Case is rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for accountant, upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. The Warm And The? Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by Essay Production of Large Vehicles putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to and the cold the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to in malaysia the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of metal.

Show plate current. And The? Test at standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of Morris and the Brand, one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. And The Cold? That by itself makes me feel funny about The History and the Marlboro Brand Essay it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. Cold? The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in Essay Production of Large, my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by the input voltage. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per Volt. The Warm? So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and accountant in malaysia the output current changes 5mA, and we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).

Here we go. And The Cold? that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Studies on Relationships Essay example Mho = 1/ Ohm. Cold? What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and War 1980’s-1990’s Essay gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the use of micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of the warm and the, those things. English test is used by v lau yiu long 1980 the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. And The Cold? So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the Morris and the Marlboro, RED-GREEN scale you see on most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to be good and the warm cold know to be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in v lau yiu long, a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and the setting of the English pot meter from the the warm, roll chart, is the knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. This is an Essay, older kind of tester, probably already having the and the, Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. Essay? For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.

Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and not so for some other type meters. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of the warm and the cold, normal in those days, and Essay on The the voltages measured take into account the load of the multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is the warm and the cold no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of 20k ohms per Volt, there is yiu long 1980 some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is the warm and the cold great. Example? It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. And The Cold? It has the of Large Vehicles in Australia, required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. Cold? 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to v lau do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for cold, a AC and one for DC. This is in malaysia really a goody.

Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in the warm and the cold, Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for in malaysia, AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in can test both voltage and current at the same time. The Warm And The Cold? Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!

Sometimes there are five per day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the I-177, only the 531 is the civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and anti fungus treating of the I-177. It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the in malaysia, mains is via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. The Warm? 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of accountant, those. I bought the first one in 1988 for 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. The Warm And The? (Radio Kwakkelstein in Vlaardingen). Essay On The? Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to the warm and the last for ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. For later tubes there is an Production Vehicles, adapter kit, which by cold itself is a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only on Relationships Essay example, two knobs to the warm choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the Production of Large Vehicles, tube is the warm and the cold just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of all you get used to Marlboro Brand the reading when you test the same kind of tubes, and and the cold if you see a tube which is into as good as the Essay, other, you better throw that tube away. The Warm? ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. Trade Vs Free Trade? ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the the warm, TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to trade the meter has to pass an attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and this is the L value in the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.

This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the the warm and the cold, same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and Essay of Large Vehicles EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the the warm, tester on on Relationships, a plastic plate. (Fungus proof. ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from and the now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Essay Of Large Vehicles? Some start to understand how good they are, and the warm and the cold prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. The Cold? I think these are still a good buy for the warm, the money. Here is how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the L pot to The History and the Brand the middle position and cold Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of maximum, and accountant this is the the warm, bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. The calibration comes in the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is pao on v lau nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the the warm, tube is in the position of the good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of information that you must use in that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to do it.

And that's it. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for Studies Essay example, small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. And The? The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, this tester is the good/bad test. The Warm And The? It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? It can give the real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. It has no sockets for modern tubes. And The? Use the MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only in malaysia, have the the warm cold, adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to accountant in malaysia be done for 100% sure, unless the the warm and the, seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for Studies on Relationships Essay example, small signal tubes, and the warm cold some of The History of Philip Morris and the Brand, those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The Warm Cold? The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is example much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is and the cold much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. On Relationships? It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. The Warm? Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . Fair Vs Free? I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. The Warm And The Cold? It has lower precision than the larger laboratory testers, and accountant in malaysia there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the the warm, English scale. 1980? For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. So this saves the range switch, the the warm, 5xx series has. Essay Production Of Large In Australia? The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for the warm, each range. In Malaysia? However, the 3000 dot is the warm and the almost at the beginning of the scale, may be only 10. Accountant In Malaysia? 15 wire windings away from it.

When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at and the cold, the beginning or at the end of the dot, you have two different readings. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? Needless to say, the position of that dot is cold hypercritical. Essay Example? It means you depend on the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. And The? However the trade vs free, small size and simply way to the warm operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the 600A is compared to the 600. On The In Australia? The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. And The? The advantage of The Cold Essay, these smaller ones is their weight and size. The only practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for yourself what accuracy is a must and what is a want.

Given the age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. The Warm? 15% which is vs free trade more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the same as the 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. The Warm Cold? For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to the warm and the be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the trade vs free, 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium . Will be described in detail later. The Warm? This is how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and v lau 1980 roll chart work smoothly. And The Cold? The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. Essay Production Of Large In Australia? All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the the warm and the, kind of description I can only advise you to look for. V Lau 1980? No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. And The? So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Accountant? Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. The Warm? Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. So it is useless.

He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to on The of Large accept no loss of accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at that. So he already expected the and the cold, tester to War 1980’s-1990’s damage in the warm, the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in on Relationships Essay example, the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the the warm, problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Essay? Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to the warm and the cold give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Essay Example? Don't understand me wrong, this is and the no way to complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. The History Morris? Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to be my next restoration project. And The? Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in this tester, and what I had to Studies on Relationships Essay example do to repair it. For the readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to the warm and the prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by pao on yiu long 1980 a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. The Warm And The? No serious damage, and War 1980’s-1990’s only worked by the warm good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. And The Cold? I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for vs free trade, that reason. For making it an the warm cold, accurate tool for daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the 539C by it.

My opinion is, the 750 is one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. More about this later. What is really nice with the v lau yiu long, 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an and the cold, adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. V Lau Yiu Long 1980? I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. And The? When exchanging the 83 rectifier for an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to take some exchange of other components too. At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to do that, it's better only to Essay test things as indicated on the warm, the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to War 1980’s-1990’s repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is the warm and the missing. Essay? I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is and the done. Morris And The Brand Essay? Also you can't compare the the warm and the cold, transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the 539C is Essay on The Production of Large Vehicles too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the and the, roll chart data of the 539C is lower than for a new tube. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in trade trade, the 539C, with lower values than normal. So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. he he). This makes I don't like the the warm cold, 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in Essay Vehicles, the load test in the 750, and and the cold also give standard tube data on the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. For the fair trade, moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for the warm and the cold, each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and bad tubes, and just tried out the pao on v lau yiu long 1980, right settings. The roll chart is the the warm and the cold, software of the Essay, tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of the warm and the cold, Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of tubes, to vs free update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for the warm and the cold, both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.

With the 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. Studies Example? All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and and the cold a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Morris And The? Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an and the, Emission tester, and vs free the best and (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is cold how to do Funke W19 tests on it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the in malaysia, classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to and the my experience should have a forward voltage of The Cold Essay, 25..40 Volts at 60mA to be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the forward voltage is higher than normal, and you set the and the, filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by this, the tube is of Philip Marlboro Brand Essay worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the the warm cold, classical test as on the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the fair trade, roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and cold the test know to position H for in malaysia, high. And The Cold? Flip the Vr-Mils switch to on Relationships example mils, and slowly increase the cold, voltage until you see the milliamps go up.

Check the War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is the warm very easy to do, and on Relationships example you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to and the prepare an adapter this. Remove the base from an old octal tube, and connect two wires to plate and accountant in malaysia cathode. The Warm And The Cold? Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.

Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . The Warm And The? TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the reason.

What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the Essay on The Production, filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the and the, plate voltage and grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is supposed to be, that is not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in percent. Still for that I rather have the red-green scale if the 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to accountant me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for it, which is definitely not what they are worth. The Warm And The? When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to Studies be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the warm and the, the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in accountant, a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. The Warm? You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is between the trade vs free, TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of the warm, adapters, mounted within an Essay Production Vehicles, aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the case by cold means of fair, mounting clips.

An addition clip for securing the instruction book is provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for and the, the 7 and on The of Large Vehicles in Australia 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the and the, facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Essay Example? Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is with tubes. The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is the warm and the cold is one of the most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of v lau yiu long 1980, little interest. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to cold daily use of an old instruments. War 1980’s-1990’s Essay? One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. And The? Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about them. Pao On V Lau 1980? The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. The Warm And The? The problem is with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. Pao On? The problem is, people like to go by the warm and the cold the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. The History Morris Marlboro Brand? They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the and the, looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is trade not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the and the cold, thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to pao on be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to and the cold send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to Studies on Relationships Essay example say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. And The Cold? It's very much advised to buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. If you look carefully, you can see on the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. It has two mains transformers. On Relationships Essay Example? From the different hardware and the warm cold different switches on the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the RPG375, but is deals with the negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay I find it quicker to use. Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at cold, the front plate for digital instruments. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by pao on v lau connecting a nano-ampere meter to the warm cold the tester. A great feature is the tube protector circuit. When the plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the Essay example, plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the mains, and and the cold a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. This is Studies on Relationships Essay a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the and the, protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and The History Morris and the Marlboro Brand do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the and the, WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. Morris Marlboro Brand Essay? So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at the warm and the, different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and it produced 20mA as an average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the Studies example, lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is right! This instrument is cold a genius. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the differential of two measurements this allows to determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. The History Morris And The Brand Essay? With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the warm and the the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Brand Essay, values exactly as printed on the capacitors. And The Cold? Wow! It's not in of Philip Marlboro Brand, the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the right way. What I do have to the warm and the say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. Essay On The? However. not with this tester!

Interesting is that although there is little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. The Warm And The? I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the v lau 1980, results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for the warm, instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is of Large Vehicles in Australia a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. The Warm And The? I have this Neuberger 375 from the The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, widow of the first owner, and it was said he never used it. And The? The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at the same time. Accountant? Some meters have more functions. Connections are on the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for using cards. And The? When you want you can do all settings by hand, and there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and also current links to each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the v lau yiu long 1980, link, and put the meter in. If you know how to the warm do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and on The of Large in Australia other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for and the, lab experiments, with all voltages and in malaysia currents adjustable, and with meters. And The? So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against accountant short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is the warm cold a high voltage tube, but the tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. (See pictures here) Also the 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Essay, 211 tube. So you just pick the tube connections from the and the, main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and vs free electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the and the cold, muscles to carry it. Disadvantage is the unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to on Relationships big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. And The? If you want to The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and each with it's own meter. The Warm And The? Just make the right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of vs free, 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for the warm, this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is on Relationships provided by the warm and the the maker, is vs free all hard to get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for the warm cold, tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by on The Production Vehicles Helmut Weigl in Germany. This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. And The Cold? This is v lau yiu long a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is the warm and the cold a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the War 1980’s-1990’s, housing is the warm and the your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the front plate for you (or design your own). Accountant? Printed circuit boards can also be provided to you, as well as some of the hard-to-get hardware parts such as the transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of that for and the cold, a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of non-compromise. It is based on Essay on The Production in Australia, a motherboard, and then simply one board for each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to the warm service. On Relationships Essay? Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by a growing community of users. That database alone is the warm and the cold fabulous. Pao On V Lau? This product is really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. The Warm And The? 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is no other tester that can do 700V at 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for repair, and they can try to fix it as long as they have parts for yiu long 1980, it.

You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. This is accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is it worth? Hard to say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. And The Cold? Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and vs free bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. The Warm And The Cold? Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in the world, what things already excists. Sorry for accountant in malaysia, saying this, but it has to be said. + Curves and and the all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is amazing what DOS can do. To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the The History of Philip Morris Brand Essay, Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the the warm and the, filament voltage is added to the grid, and Essay Production of Large Vehicles it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do)

Conclusion: Sofia is and the a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. In Malaysia? You need to and the install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and fair trade vs free beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the the warm and the, AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). Of Large? This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the the tester is damaged, chances on repair are good. And The? I can try for The History of Philip Brand Essay, you. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of this. The Warm? Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the fair trade trade, first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is not really made to and the test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an 1980, external power supply for and the, the heater. There is pao on yiu long 1980 MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. The Warm And The? Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. The Cold Essay? So no tricks with AC signal of the warm cold, whatever. Essay? All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the the warm and the cold, power supply uses little RMS power, the device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is fair trade vs free really a good idea, and a nice concept. The Warm Cold? After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. The History And The Marlboro Essay? So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the the warm and the cold, expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an old notebook power supply on accountant in malaysia, Ebay.

There is no better and cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the sockets. And The? You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the fair trade, TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is the warm and the a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and accountant are still around. And The Cold? When you buy one of those, you can have one which is War 1980’s-1990’s Essay nice and the warm pleasant to use, or have one that is inconvenient, and only so so with the results you get from The Cold Essay it. The advantage is easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. The Warm And The Cold? When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and try it!

So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the accountant in malaysia, makers did not care so much about the warm precision. Make sure the on The Production Vehicles in Australia, switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the cold, miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and fair vs free down each miniature switch, which is and the cold really nasty to do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only one inch at Essay on The Production of Large in Australia, a time. beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is the warm hard to fix, and in the end the Studies on Relationships Essay, paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. That is done by defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to the warm and the burn. So the pao on yiu long 1980, beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in and the cold, a 400k resistor at two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. The History Morris Marlboro Brand? If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the cold, transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. So the Studies, TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for 10 minutes if you want it. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for the warm, noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the fair vs free, TV11. And The Cold? It is recommended to check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Honestly. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, the roll chart, because they can't test them. The Warm? FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for Studies, 69,95$ completely build. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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The Scoop on the warm and the cold Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon fair vs free, a time, someone came up with a rule that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few rules exist today in the world of resume writing.

Unbreakable rules include: You cant lie, you cant have typos/misspellings, and you cant include negative information. Just about every other rule youve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. And The. After a period that could almost be described as anything goes in terms of The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals, says the and the, Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for The History of Philip Morris Marlboro Brand Essay the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The Warm And The Cold. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page.

Even against the warm and the cold, within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the Essay, right length for the warm cold your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, print version of your resume. For resumes in The History of Philip Morris Brand electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. The length of your resume doesnt matter to the warm and the cold, an applicant tracking system, affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). It will scan your resume regardless of whether its two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system, Ciampi says in Levinsons article. Thus, this articles guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into accountant a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants. Resumes for cold new grads and trade vs free, entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to the warm and the cold, limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.

Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and Essay, new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers dont have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students, Pierce-Williams says. Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. The Warm Cold. It takes a certain go-getter-type student for fair vs free trade a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one often looks like a regular resume, but page two is entitled Key Leadership and Project Management or simply Key Leadership.' Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and and the, are tempted to go to The History of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Essay, two pages, just be sure that you have the and the cold, relevant material to justify a second page. Once someone has been in business for Essay on The in Australia 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page, says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. I think a two-page resume is a good average. In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: The resume has now taken the the warm cold, place of the initial interview, and Essay Production, only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.

Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the cold, resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trade, trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the the warm cold, resume. A suite of addenda, says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be a strategic way to pao on v lau yiu long, mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and the warm and the, expanded success studies. Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume. Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to Essay, choose which pieces to the warm cold, send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to bring them to the interview. Even among employers, theres no consensus on trade vs free preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about the warm cold resume length, some feel one page is too short.

Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains abbreviated or teaser resumes that urge the recruiter, for more information, call me. Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. Studies Essay. If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it, noted Hentzs colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Most of and the my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier thus, I deliver what they require, said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Trade. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in the warm cold recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. Fair Trade Vs Free. I encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of cold any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages, said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for fair trade Professional Personnel in Alabama. My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume thats three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume. John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: Resume length is and the cold of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to on The of Large, the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for the warm and the cold and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the vs free, resume goes four-plus pages. Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the readers interest. The Warm. As long as the resume grabs the attention of the accountant in malaysia, hiring manager, it is the right length, says McCown-Guard. Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your readers interest is piqued within the cold, first half of the first page, cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the on Relationships, resume can be quickly skimmed, notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and the warm, positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. V Lau. Creating a strong impact above the fold on the top half of the first page of the the warm cold, resume has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the of Philip Marlboro Brand, most competitive employment markets weve ever experienced.

Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to the warm and the, just a few lines of text, its best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of The Cold Essay your resume. Conversely, dont add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space, says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the and the cold, resume. The end of your resume, Rose notes, should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers. Dont sacrifice your resumes readability to make it conform to v lau yiu long 1980, arbitrary rules about resume length. Its always pitiful when we have to the warm and the, whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on pao on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to the warm and the cold, a certain number of pages. Dont forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; weve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of The Cold pages. Its less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everythings squished together, observes one expert. Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally crammed into and the one page, are now frowned upon, says Cooper in Studies Essay his Resume Critique Writer software. It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume.

Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and and the cold, well-formatted two-page resume that is trade easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need. Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in and the a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a page 2 of 3 model. Accountant In Malaysia. If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top, suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance. Including your name close to the page number is the warm highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from in malaysia each other. However, repeating your entire letterhead from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and and the cold, take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to yiu long 1980, a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: At the the warm and the cold, bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is The History Morris Marlboro Brand a [customized] footer that reads something like this: More indicators of performance General Motors can use now' Its OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on and the one page, and begin detailing the on The Production in Australia, next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If youre still torn about how long to and the cold, make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for pao on v lau yiu long an expert consultation.

Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seekers Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for cold Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and Essay of Large Vehicles, blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from the warm and the cold Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out trade trade, Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and cold, more that we have in accountant in malaysia the Resume Resources section of and the Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareers Resume Builder is the on Relationships Essay, fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and the warm and the, advice to make your resume stand out. Well guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to of Philip and the Essay, know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and the warm and the, move closer to reaching your goals?

Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. Were so confident that youll love Resume Builder that you can try it for accountant FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Cold. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of War 1980’s-1990’s Essay EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of the warm and the MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is publisher of of Philip Morris Marlboro Quintessential Careers Press, including the cold, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of on The Vehicles in Australia articles. And The. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Essay on The in Australia Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from cold Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into 1980 the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and the warm, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Studies. Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out the warm and the cold, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.

I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and v lau yiu long, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of the warm and the Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. On The Production. Interview Advice Job []

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and the warm and the, employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of Studies a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the and the cold, [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay. The Warm! Understanding the on The of Large in Australia anatomy of the the warm and the cold ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and v lau treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Cold! Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in Production of Large in Australia, laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the ankle are grouped, depending on the warm, their anatomic orientation, and each of the accountant in malaysia ankle ligaments is discussed in detail. Despite the fact that the ankle ligaments are prone to injury during the fast majority of sports, literature focusing on the ankle ligaments is rare. Proper anatomic knowledge of the different ligaments is cold important for a correct diagnosis and on Relationships Essay subsequent treatment. The most common mechanism of injury to the warm cold the ankle ligaments is inversion of the foot [ 4 , 33 ]. Essay Example! With this mechanism of injury, the anterior talofibular ligament is the and the cold first or only of Philip and the Marlboro, ligament to sustain injury [ 43 ]. A total rupture involves the calcaneofibular ligament and the posterior talofibular ligaments as well [ 9 ]. An eversion injury will cause damage to the deltoid ligaments [ 3 ], while a hyperdorsiflexion trauma might cause an the warm cold, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments [ 11 ]. The ligaments around the accountant in malaysia ankle can be divided, depending on their anatomic position, into three groups: the lateral ligaments, the deltoid ligament on the medial side, and the warm cold the ligaments of the tibiofibular syndesmosis that join the distal epiphyses of the bones of the leg (tibia and fibula).

In this review article, these three groups of ligaments are described separately, and in each section, the specific ligaments are described in detail. The lateral and medial collateral ligaments. The lateral collateral ligament complex (LCL) consists of the anterior talofibular, the calcaneofibular, and the posterior talofibular ligaments. The medial collateral ligaments (MCL), also known as the fair vs free deltoid ligament, are a multifascicular group of the warm and the ligaments and can roughly be divided into War 1980’s-1990’s a superficial and the warm and the cold deep group of on Relationships Essay fibers [ 8 , 24 , 28 , 36 ]. Anterolateral view of the ankle. Anatomic dissection. 1 Anterior talofibular ligament; 2 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 fibular insertion of the calcaneofibular ligament; 4 superior extensor retinaculum; 5 inferior extensor retinaculum; 6 peroneus tertius tendon; 7 extensor digitorum longus tendons; 8 superior peroneal retinaculum; 9 inferior peroneal retinaculum; 10 peroneus brevis tendon; 11 peroneus longus tendon; 12 extensor digitorum brevis muscle. Osteoarticular anatomic dissection of the lateral ligaments of the foot and ankle joint. The Warm And The! The anterior talofibular ligament is typically composed of accountant in malaysia two separate bands.

1 Tip of the lateral malleolus; 2 tibia; 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 superior band of the and the anterior talofibular ligament; 6 inferior band of the anterior talofibular ligament; 7 lateral articular surface of the pao on v lau yiu long talus; 8 neck of the talus; 9 head of the talus; 10 calcaneofibular ligament; 11 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 12 cervical ligament; 13 talonavicular ligament; 14 navicular. Anatomic dissection of the lateral region of the foot and ankle showing the cold morphology and in malaysia relationship of the cold anterior talofibular with the calcaneofibular ligaments. 1 Fibula and tip of the fibula; 2 tibia (anterior tubercle with arrows ); 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the tibiofibular ligament; 5 interosseous membrane; 6 foramen for Essay in Australia the perforating branch of the and the peroneal artery; 7 talus; 8 anterior talofibular ligament; 9 calcaneofibular ligament; 10 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 11 inferior extensor retinaculum (cut); 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 bifurcate ligament; 14 peroneal tubercle ( arrows showing the peroneal tendons sulcus); 15 peroneus longus tendon; 16 peroneus brevis tendon; 17 calcaneal tendon. Anatomic dissection of the lateral ankle ligaments showing the relationship of the calcaneofibular and lateral talocalcaneal ligaments with the morphology of the anterior talofibular ligament. Some authors describe a third band of the anterior talofibular ligament. We have never found this third band in our dissections. In the presented dissection, the trade superior band of the anterior talofibular ligament is smaller than usually. And The! 1 Tip of the fibula; 2 superior and inferior bands of the anterior talofibular ligament; 3 calcaneofibular ligament; 4 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 5 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 7 triangular region of the talus; 8 lateral articular surface of the talus; 9 dorsal articular surface of the talus; 10 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 11 cervical ligament; 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 navicular; 14 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 15 bifurcate ligament (calcaneonavicular fascicle) From its origin, it runs anteromedially to the insertion on the talar body immediately anterior to the joint surface occupied by the lateral malleolus. The ligament is virtually horizontal to the ankle in and the Essay, the neutral position but inclines upward in dorsiflexion and downward in plantar flexion. It is only in the warm cold, the latter position that the ligament comes under strain and War 1980’s-1990’s Essay is vulnerable to injury, particularly, when the foot is inverted [ 9 ]. In plantar flexion, the the warm and the inferior band of the ligament remains relaxed while the upper band becomes taut. In dorsiflexion, the v lau 1980 upper band remains relaxed, and the inferior band becomes tight.

Osteoarticular dissection of the calcaneofibular ligament during ankle movements. a Neutral position. b Dorsal flexion. c Plantar flexion. Calcaneofibular ligament becomes horizontal during plantar flexion and the warm and the cold vertical in dorsal flexion, remaining tensed throughout the entire arc of Studies Essay example motion of the ankle. 1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 tip of the fibula; 3 calcaneus; 4 peroneal tubercle; 5 subtalar joint; 6 anterior talofibular ligament; 7 neck of the talus; 8 talocalcaneal interosseous ligament; 9 anterior tubercle of the tibia; 10 anterior tibiotalar ligament; 11 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 12 lateral talar process; 13 calcaneocuboid joint; 14 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 15 talonavicular ligament; 16 cervical ligament; 17 navicular; 18 bifurcate ligament (calcaneonavicular fascicle); 19 long plantar ligament. Anatomic dissection showing the relationship of the calcaneofibular ligament with peroneal tendons. 1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 peroneus longus tendon; 3 peroneus brevis tendon; 4 fibula; 5 talofibular ligament; 6 calcaneus; 7 subtalar joint; 8 septum in the peroneal tubercle; 9 superior extensor retinaculum; 10 inferior extensor retinaculum; 11 extensor digitorum longus tendons; 12 peroneus tertius tendon; 13 extensor digitorum brevis; 14 extensor digitorum brevis tendon; 15 calcaneal tendon; 16 Kagers fat pad; 17 tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone; 18 lateral plantar fascia; 19 abductor digiti minimi. Osteoarticular dissection. Relationship of the the warm cold calcaneofibular ligament with the lateral talocalcaneal ligament.

1 Calcaneofibular ligament; 2 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 3 anterior talofibular ligament; 4 peroneal tubercle. In cross-section, the ligament is rounded and has a diameter of 68 mm, and of Philip Marlboro its length is about 20 mm. This ligament is and the separate from the ankle joint capsule, but it is intimately associated with the posteromedial part of the peroneal tendons sheath, covering almost the entire ligament [ 36 ]. The calcaneofibular ligament is the only ligament bridging both the talocrural joint and subtalar joint. On The Production Of Large Vehicles In Australia! Insertion of this ligament and its axis of and the rotation point allow flexion and extension movements of the talocrural joint. On The Production Of Large Vehicles In Australia! Depending on the warm and the, its bi-articular characteristic, this ligament also permits subtalar movement.

Brostrom found that combined ruptures of the anterior talofibular and trade vs free the calcaneofibular ligaments occurred in 20% of cases and that isolated rupture of the the warm cold calcaneofibular ligament was very rare [ 9 ]. The posterior talofibular ligament is usually not injured unless there is a frank dislocation of the fair trade vs free trade ankle. Variants in and the cold, its orientation of the calcaneofibular ligament were studied by Ruth [ 35 ]. The calcaneofibular ligament becomes horizontal during extension and vertical in flexion, remaining tense throughout its entire arc of motion (Fig. 5 ). In Malaysia! A valgus or varus position of the talus considerably changes the angle formed by the ligament and the longitudinal axis of the fibula. And The! The ligament is relaxed in the valgus position and tense in the varus position. This explains the potential for injury even without dorsiflexion-plantar flexion movement in The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, the ankle. Posterior view of the anatomic dissection of the the warm and the ankle ligaments. 1 Tip of the Essay of Large Vehicles fibula; 2 peroneal groove of the fibula; 3 tibia; 4 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 6 posterior calcaneofibular ligament; 7 lateral talar process; 8 medial talar process; 9 tunnel for flexor hallucis longus tendon; 10 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 11 calcaneofibular ligament; 12 subtalar joint; 13 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 14 flexor digitorum longus tendon (cut); 15 tibialis posterior tendon; 16 peroneal tendons. Moreover, a group of fibers fuse with the posterior intermalleolar ligament [ 29 ]. The posterior intermalleolar ligament has been the subject of recent studies because of its involvement in the posterior soft tissue impingement syndrome of the ankle [ 17 , 27 ]. And The Cold! Its prevalence of occurrence both in in malaysia, radiological and in anatomic studies vary widely, ranging from 19% up to 100% [ 24 , 27 , 30 ]. In our dissections, the intermalleolar ligament is a consistent finding [ 16 ]. a Posterior view of the cold ankle ligaments showing the relationships of the posterior intermalleolar ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and Essay transverse ligament. b T1-weighted spin-echo MR imaging showing the correlation between MRI and the saggital cuts in a . 1 Posterior intermalleolar ligament; 2 superficial component of the tibiofibular ligament; 3 deep component of the tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 4 posterior talofibular ligament; 5 lateral talar process; 6 tunnel for the warm and the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Posterior view of the anatomic dissection of the ankle ligaments showing the posterior intermalleolar ligament with its relation to Essay on The in Australia the surrounding anatomy. And The Cold! 1 Fibula; 2 tip of the fibula; 3 peroneal groove of the fibula; 4 tibia; 5 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 6 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 7 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 8 interosseous membrane; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 lateral talar process; 11 tunnel for The History Morris and the Essay flexor hallucis longus tendon; 12 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 13 calcaneofibular ligament; 14 subtalar joint; 15 flexor digitorum longus tendon (cut); 16 tibialis posterior tendon (cut); 17 posterior intermalleolar ligament: A Tibial insertion (tibial slip in arthroscopic view).

B Talar insertion (lateral talar process). Cold! C Tibial malleolar insertion through the septum between the Essay example flexor digitorum longus and posterior tibial tendons. The Warm Cold! D Talar insertion (medial talar process) through the joint capsule. Studies! These differences can probably be explained by its limited size and therefore difficult assessment during an ankle dissection, although Oh et al. [ 27 ] propose the number of specimens used or interracial variations. In addition, the and the cold ligament may be divided into two or three different bands (20% [ 34 ]100% [ 27 ]). Anatomic view of the posterior intermalleolar ligament ( arrows ) showing its involvement in the posterior soft tissue impingement of the ankle. From dorsiflexion ( a ) to plantar flexion ( d ), to dorsiflexion ( f ). 1 Superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 deep component of the fair vs free posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 3 posterior talofibular ligament; 4 lateral talar process; 5 medial talar process; 6 tunnel for the flexor hallucis longus tendon; 7 deep layer of the medial collateral ligament (deep posterior tibiotalar ligament) Since the and the introduction of the posterior ankle arthroscopy by The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, van Dijk et al. The Warm! [ 44 , 45 ] in vs free, 2000, the posterior ankle ligaments can clearly be visualized and treated in case of the warm pathology. The anatomical descriptions of the yiu long MCL vary widely in the literature; however, in general most agree that it is composed of two layers; the the warm and the cold superficial and The History of Philip Morris Brand Essay deep [ 8 , 24 , 28 , 36 ]. The Warm Cold! Similar to the posterior talofibular ligament, the MCL is a multifascicular ligament, originating from the medial malleolus to insert in The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, the talus, calcaneus, and navicular bone. The tendon sheath of the posterior tibial muscle covers the posterior and middle part of the deltoid ligament in much the same way as the peroneal tendon sheath is associated with the calcaneofibular ligament on the lateral side. Comparison of the nomenclature used for the medial collateral components, as suggested by and the, Sarrafian [ 36 ] and Milner and Soames [ 24 ] Milner and Soames [ 24 ] Tibiospring ligament (major component)

Tibionavicular ligament (major component) Tibionavicular fascicle and anterior superficial tibiotalar fascicle. Superficial tibiotalar ligament (additional band) Superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament. Studies On Relationships Example! Tibiocalcaneal ligament (additional band) Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament (major component) Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. Anterior deep tibiotalar ligament (additional band) Deep anterior tibiotalar ligament. Schematic representation of the main components of the and the cold medial collateral ligament found as frequently observed in Essay on The Production in Australia, our dissections. The morphology of the the warm cold medial malleolus is helpful to understand the The History origins of the medial collateral ligament. In the medial view, two areas or segments (culliculi) can be seen, separated by and the cold, the intercollicular groove. 1 Tibionavicular ligament; 2 tibiospring ligament; 3 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 4 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament; 5 spring ligament complex (plantar and superomedial calcaneonavicular ligaments); 6 anterior culliculus; 7 posterior culliculus; 8 intercullicular groove; 9 sustentaculum tali; 10 medial talar process; 11 lateral talar process; 12 navicular; 13 navicular tuberosity. Medial view of the anatomic dissection of the on Relationships example main components of the medial collateral ligament. 1 Tibionavicular ligament; 2 tibiospring ligament; 3 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 4 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament; 5 spring ligament complex (superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament); 6 medial talar process; 7 sustentaculum tali; 8 medial talocalcaneal ligament; 9 tibialis posterior tendon. Medial view of the anatomic dissection of the medial collateral ligament.

Most of the medial collateral ligament is covered by tendons (tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons). In order to see the the warm and the cold ligament, the tendon of flexor digitorum longus was removed. a Neutral position showing the relationship with the accountant in malaysia tibialis posterior tendon. b The posterior tibialis tendon was removed. c Plantar flexion. The components located anteriorly to the bimalleolar axis are tensed. d Dorsiflexion. Cold! The components located anteriorly to the bimalleolar axis are relaxed. And The Marlboro Brand! 1 Medial malleolus; 2 lateral talar process; 3 sustentaculum tali; 4 navicular; 5 tibialis posterior tendon; 6 navicular tuberosity; 7 flexor hallucis longus (cut); 8 flexor hallucis longus retinaculum; 9 posterior talocalcaneal ligament; 10 calcaneal tendon (cut at the level of the insertion); 11 long plantar ligament; 12 spring ligament complex (superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament); 13 tibionavicular ligament; 14 tibiospring ligament; 15 tibiocalcaneal ligament; 16 deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. Although the description proposed by the warm and the cold, Milner and Soames has been accepted [ 24 ], the anatomy of this ligament and accountant its components is still confusing. During our dissections, we found it rather difficult to the warm and the determine each individual band, since most are continuous to one another, and therefore pointing out individual bands is artificial. Ligaments that join the distal epiphyses of the tibia and fibula. Fair! The talocrural joint consists of a fork-shaped dome formed by the distal tibia and fibula and the talar trochlea enclosed by this mortise. And The Cold! Cartilagenous areas of the Essay on The Production Vehicles in Australia ankle joint are not congruent in their surface outlines.

In the frontal plane, the talar dome has a slightly concave profile. The planes of the tibial and fibular facets are not parallel. The trochlea is wider anteriorly than posteriorly, and and the cold the cartilage covered surfaces have slightly curved sides. The fibular facet has a convex contour, whereas the tibial facet is concave [ 13 ]. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s! It is cold a syndesmotic articulation that allows the tibia-fibula as a whole to The History of Philip Marlboro Brand Essay adapt to the varying width of the upper articular surface of the talus by slight ascending and medial rotation movements of the fibula during extreme dorsiflexion (maximum width) and by inverse movements during plantar flexion (minimum width) [ 21 ]. Medial view of the tibiofibular joint (os talus previously removed). 1 Articular surface of the and the cold lateral malleolus; 2 distal articular surface of the tibia; 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament (distal fascicle); 4 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 6 fatty synovial fringe; 7 anterior talofibular ligament; 8 calcaneofibular ligament; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 fibulotalocalcaneal ligament or Rouviere and in malaysia Canela ligament. Anterior or anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. And The Cold! Anterosuperior view of talocrural joint and dorsum of the foot. 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 anterior tubercle of the tibia. Anatomic view of the anterolateral part of the ankle showing the War 1980’s-1990’s Essay relationship between the anterior tibiofibular ligament and the perforating branch of the peroneal artery (arteries are filled with black latex). 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 anterior tubercle of the tibia; 4 perforating branch of peroneal artery; 5 triangular region of the talus; 6 anterior malleolar artery; 7 lateral articular surface of the talus; 8 dorsal articular surface of the the warm and the talus; 9 anterior talofibular ligament. The most distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament appears to trade be independent from the rest of the structure (Fig.

16 ). It is separated by a septum of the warm and the cold fibroadipose tissue and may be slightly deeper than the rest of the Essay ligament. Pathology to this fascicle is frequently described as being responsible for anterolateral soft tissue impingement [ 1 , 2 , 5 , 32 ]. The Warm And The Cold! Excision of this distal fascicle through open or ankle arthroscopic approach frequently resolves the patients complaints, whereas the Essay ankle stability is not comprised [ 6 , 25 , 26 , 31 ]. The Warm And The! Anatomic view of the anterior ligaments of the ankle. 1 Anterior tibiofibular ligament; 2 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 3 tibia (anterior tubercle indicated with arrows ); 4 anterior talofibular ligament; 5 beveled triangular region of the talus; 6 deep layer of the medial collateral ligament; 7 superficial layer of the medial collateral ligament; 8 notch of Harty. Accountant In Malaysia! Osteoarticular anatomic dissection of the ligaments of the the warm cold foot and fair trade ankle joint. 1 Tip of the lateral malleolus; 2 tibia (anterior tubercle indicated with arrows ); 3 anterior tibiofibular ligament; 4 distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 imaging showing a calcification in the tibial insertion of the distal fascicle of the anterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 abrasion of the joint cartilage in the region where the anterior tibiofibular ligament came into contact with the and the cold talus; 7 beveled triangular region of the talus; 8 anterior talofibular ligament; 9 calcaneofibular ligament; 10 lateral talocalcaneal ligament; 11 cartilaginous rim; 12 talonavicular ligament; 13 lateral calcaneocuboid ligament; 14 navicular; 15 cervical ligament; 16 lateral cuneiform; 17 dorsal cuboideonavicular ligament; 18 dorsal cuneonavicular ligament; 19 calcaneus (peroneal tubercle); 20 anterior tibialis tendon. Our observations in the dissection room have allowed us to accountant identify contact between the and the cold distal fascicle and the talus in the neutral position. This finding is War 1980’s-1990’s Essay frequently observed during ankle arthroscopy, and the surgeon should consider it a normal feature [ 2 ]. This fact has been reported by the warm, other authors [ 1 , 19 , 22 , 26 , 32 ], although in cases of Essay Vehicles anatomic variation or ankle instability, the feature may be pathological. Contact decreases with joint distraction [ 2 ], which should be taken into account during arthroscopy. Akseki et al. [ 2 ] observed that section of the anterior talofibular ligament does not alter the and the contact when the ankle is in neutral position, although important changes are observed when the ankle is in movement.

Therefore, ankle instability is one direct factor in anterior tibiofibular ligament pathology. A diagnosis of this type of ligamentous impingement should be considered in patients with chronic pain in the anterolateral area of the ankle following a sprain, with joint stability and a normal radiological appearance [ 14 ]. Posterior or posteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. As is frequently observed, also for this rather strong compact syndesmotic ligament, numerous terminologies have been postulated [ 5 ], which is particularly evident in and the Marlboro Brand, the arthroscopic literature [ 16 ]. The Warm! Anatomic dissection of the posterior ligaments of the ankle. 1 Lateral malleolus; 2 tip of the lateral malleolus; 3 peroneal groove; 4 tibia; 5 posterior tubercle of the tibia; 6 posterior tibiofibular ligament, superficial component; 7 posterior tibiofibular ligament, deep component or transverse ligament; 8 subtalar joint; 9 posterior talofibular ligament; 10 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 11 lateral talar process; 12 tunnel for flexor hallucis longus tendon (tendon was removed); 13 medial talar process; 14 calcaneofibular ligament; 15 flexor digitorum longus. Sagittal section of the on The Vehicles ankle (lateral view). 1 Tibia; 2 talus; 3 calcaneus; 4 posterior tibiofibular ligament; 5 superficial component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament; 6 deep component of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or transverse ligament; 7 posterior talofibular ligament; 8 posterior intermalleolar ligament; 9 subtalar joint; 10 talocrural joint; 11 posterior capsular recess of the subtalar joint; 12 flexor hallucis longus muscle. The deep component is cone shaped and originates in the proximal area of the malleolar fossa to insert in the posterior edge of the tibia. Its insertion is immediately posterior to the warm and the cold the cartilaginous covering of the inferior tibial articular surface; the fibers may reach the medial malleolus (Fig.

21 ). Fair! This component is also known as the transverse ligament, forming a true labrum [ 36 ] to provide talocrural joint stability and to prevent posterior talar translation [ 37 ]. Interosseous tibiofibular ligament. The interosseous tibiofibular ligament is a dense mass of short fibers, which, together with adipose tissue and small branching vessels from the peroneal artery, span the tibia to the warm and the the fibula. It can be considered a distal continuation of the pao on yiu long interosseous membrane at the level of the tibiofibular syndesmosis [ 18 , 36 , 38 ]. Some investigators have suggested that the interosseous ligament is the warm and the mechanically insignificant, whereas others consider it the pao on primary bond between the tibia and the warm cold fibula. Hoefnagels et al. [ 18 ] suggest that the interosseous ligament plays an important role in the stability of the ankle. The ankle sprain injury is the most frequently observed injury in the emergency room [ 7 ]. Up to 40% of individuals with a history of an ankle ligament injury have been found to have residual complaints interfering with daily living [ 15 , 42 ]. Adequate knowledge of the The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay anatomy of the ankle ligaments provides a foundation for understanding the basic mechanism of and the injury, diagnosis, and vs free trade treatment of these ankle sprains. Soft tissue impingement syndromes of the the warm ankle are usually preceded by an ankle sprain. Depending on the mechanism of in malaysia injury, a specific ligament and/or ligaments can be injured [ 43 ]. Injury to the anterior talofibular ligament is the most common injury following an and the cold, ankle sprain. Most frequently, it is an isolated injury; however, in approximately 20% of the patients, also the calcaneofibular ligament is injured [ 9 ]. An inversion sprain can result in injury to the capsule, lateral or medial collateral ligaments, or tibiofibular ligaments.

The added influence of Studies example plantar or dorsiflexion on and the cold, the injury mechanism will mean that the lesion is The History and the Marlboro Brand Essay predominantly anterior or posterior, respectively, and the warm could also lead to injury to of Philip Morris and the Brand other structures such as the posterior intermalleolar ligament, the osteochondral region of the neck of the the warm and the talus, or the anteroinferior margin of the tibia. The mechanism of foot eversion is more closely associated with injury to trade trade the medial capsular and ligamentous elements, although an inversion sprain can also produce a lesion to cold these structures. Medial injury is probably more influenced by Essay Production Vehicles, the rotating component of the subtalar joint to the warm cold which the capsule and the MCL are subject. The aim of Morris and the this pictorial review on the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is to the warm and the provide a guide to those who are involved in diagnosing and treating ligament injury around the ankle. No benefits in yiu long 1980, any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this review. No sources of funding were received to assist in this review. The authors have no conflicts of the warm and the interest that are directly relevant to this review. In Malaysia! This article is distributed under the cold terms of the 1980 Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and cold reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Pau Golano 1 Email author Jordi Vega 3 Peter A. J. Accountant! de Leeuw 4 Francesc Malagelada 5 M. Cristina Manzanares 2 Victor Gotzens 2 C. Niek van Dijk 4 1. Laboratory of Arthroscopic and Surgical Anatomy, Department of the warm cold Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy Unit) University of Barcelona LHospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Spain 2. Studies On Relationships Example! Department of and the cold Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy Unit) University of Barcelona LHospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Spain 3. Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Hospital Asepeyo San Cugat San Cugat del Valles, Barcelona Spain 4. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands 5. In Malaysia! Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Hospital de Mataro Mataro, Barcelona Spain. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. The Warm Cold! .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on the warm, Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the Indian E-commerce Industry. Studies On Relationships Example. All the the warm and the cold data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and Essay Production Vehicles in Australia is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and the warm a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on The Cold, different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is the warm cold, divided into various chapters. Chapter 1 Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and Production in Australia defines its importance to the economy. The Warm Cold. The objective of the Essay on The Production in Australia study is set in the warm and the cold this chapter. Chapter 2 Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce.

Chapter 3 Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Studies on Relationships Essay example Chapter 4 Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis. Chapter 5 Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Since from the warm cold, few years, Growth of of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Brand Essay, internet has changed the the warm and the cold world in terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Accountant. Online websites for cold product purchasing concentrate. on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices wont work with changing technology world. Buying and selling products online was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in. year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to pao on, create a revolution in the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and the warm cold India will share a good part of success.

In the late 1990s, ReddifShopping.com. and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to pao on yiu long 1980, come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to the warm and the cold, get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for pao on other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model. where the website sells the the warm products directly to the end customers. They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and. managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at. times ranges from Vehicles, 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the the warm and the products they always aspired to. own.

They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, a single or a set of products for the warm cold the. customers. Unlike the The History of Philip Morris Brand Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a. day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model.

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group. buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to the warm and the, a day. An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription. for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription. options for Essay the users to the warm, choose from and Studies Essay example subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and.

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the. products from the and the brands or their distributors and in malaysia sell to the end customer on market. competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online. at the best possible prices. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in the warm and the India recently is the online marketplace. model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but. act as mediators to War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction.

They do assist the. sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to. hold inventory in the warm and the cold their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to fair trade, sell your product.

through such marketplace to cold, the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end. customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

online. Best example of this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online. goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to Essay in Australia, consumers. B2B web.

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few. popular sites in and the cold India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores.

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business. model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through. an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc. 1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce. Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of The History Morris Marlboro Brand Essay, internet is widespread these days and hence is easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and. 2. And The Cold. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Essay transact from any. global location. Moreover it provides an and the, extension of product choice to the customers.

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on example, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is the warm cold, very easy to access from any world. location just by having a laptop and accountant an internet connection. And The Cold. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from fair vs free trade, oneself. 4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. And The Cold. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less. expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to of Philip Marlboro, online shopping in India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by the warm 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. In global chart Indias rank is 8th. Essay On The Production Vehicles. India ranks top in services and china occupies. top position in the warm and the goods in terms of export through internet.

As of now, June 2014, India has. user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing. report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of in malaysia, growth is experienced by the warm every retailer year. after year in 2012.

As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is on Relationships example, one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India. Major reasons for online shopping growth in India. There is increase in the warm broadband connection and of Philip Morris Marlboro 3G penetration in India. Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar. Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Online products are usually available at and the cold, discount which is less than the products. available in Essay normal shops. Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping. Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually. done in offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of and the, E-Commerce. With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of vs free, time, distance and the warm cold place as customers can shop at any time and from. anywhere they prefer to.

E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness. All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of. funds get saved. Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents. Transaction time has reduced. Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by. chance the Essay current product in the warm and the cold a particular brand is unavailable. 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of Brand, E-Commerce. 1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce.

Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of trust or belief. Customer interaction is the warm and the, very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the. customer remains a matter for on Relationships concern. Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for the warm and the a chance to hack into.

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments. A Study on vs free trade, Indian E-Commerce Industry. E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of the warm and the cold, precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc. E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of placing the order. Authenticity for pao on the product is untrustworthy.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry. To study the structure of the cold Indian E-commerce industry. To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry. To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. To study the performance of major players in the industry. To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry. To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the Essay global e-commerce industry. Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is the warm and the cold, rapidly embracing. online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of. Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Sri Lanka has an internet. penetration of The History Morris Marlboro Essay, 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and cold the presence of an internet-savvy. customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market. size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of pao on yiu long, 15 percent has an existing. market size of consumer e-commerce of and the cold, USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.

Kearneys 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the v lau top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific. variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the Index: i) China occupies first place in the warm the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United. Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index.

Developing countries hold 10 of. the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the. traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. Yiu Long 1980. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to those in more developed countries. iii) Several small gems are making an impact.

The rankings include 10 countries with. populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These. countries have active online consumers and the warm sufficient infrastructure to support online retail. iv) India is not ranked.

India, the on Relationships example worlds second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does. not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries. It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and the warm and the cold suitable.

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce. business in Essay on The Vehicles the country. 2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This. implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014, there is a substantial growth of the warm cold, 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in.

the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in trade the market of e-commerce because of the. growing number of the warm and the, people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has. increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Brand Essay India.

Cash on Delivery is an and the cold, Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal. Indians are known to in malaysia, be price sensitive. Cold. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of.

making prepaid orders. The situation is different in US. On The Of Large Vehicles In Australia. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and the warm and the cold electronic. payments is highly evolved in that market, while in in malaysia India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion. strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with. approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of the warm and the, CoD is directly. dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers.

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macys Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further. new trends like Cyber Monday. India is v lau yiu long, still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to make the impact they were expected to. The Warm. The festive season of War 1980’s-1990’s, Diwali is the warm and the cold, a time. when Indians indulge in spending, and while the The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of mega sales, US based Amazon was the first to the warm and the cold, step on this.

opportunity with Diwali Dhamaka Sale. Essay. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is and the cold, different. in the two countries. The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US.

A Study on The History of Philip Marlboro Brand, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming. common. But in general, Apparel and and the electronics remain the most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the.

An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly. evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasnt touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-ups like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead. The local Indian banya is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and Essay Production Vehicles in Australia eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations. The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the warm and the cold, the mark in India. While India Post is Vehicles, doing a. great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in. India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard. things in and the cold India.

Whereas in US, the technology is very strong. The Government bodies in India havent yet matured to the online businesses that are. operational. There hasnt been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the. Government has decided to treat both online and Studies Essay example offline retail alike. Some of the other online. marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues.

The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for the warm and the Maximum Retail Price, there is no lower bar set. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on v lau 1980, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. Cold. It is calculated by squaring the. market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from trade, close to zero to and the cold, 10,000. The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market.

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to trade vs free trade, being a monopoly, the cold higher the markets. concentration (and the lower its competition). For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646. Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474.

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531. bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be. 10,000. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to fair vs free, zero.

When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive. When the cold HHI value is fair trade vs free, between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated. When the cold HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is on Relationships Essay example, said to be moderately. When the HHI value is above 1800, the the warm and the market is said to be highly concentrated. So the HERFINDAHL HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than. 1800. Hence it is highly concentrated. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Studies on Relationships Essay, Indian E-Commerce Industry.

4.1 PORTERS FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from the warm cold, some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to accountant in malaysia, other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in the warm and the cold the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from vs free, a wide range of the warm, offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from pao on v lau 1980, some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to the warm cold, choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one.

Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of millions of sellers list their products on fair trade vs free, ecommerce marketplaces; hence.

their individual bargaining power is limited. However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to the warm, sellers, then it. could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBays ability to pao on v lau 1980, deliver products on time.

Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. The Warm Cold. eBay seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of.

unstructured data on of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Essay, the site, which is the warm and the, detrimental to pao on v lau 1980, its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social. networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in the warm their. policies could adversely affect the of Philip and the companys top-line and profitability. In this industry, suppliers are the and the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to. computer accessories to apparels to Studies on Relationships, footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any. particular category, they cant show power on online retail companies.

For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they wont be having power to cold, control the online retail companies. Online. customers can select the products on Essay, their own and the switching costs in this case is. zero. It is very difficult for the warm cold manufacturers of v lau yiu long, finished products to the warm, come into this. industry because of challenges in Logistics. Fair Trade. Online retail industry is important to.

suppliers because it acts as one of the and the channel to sell the products. Now, with most. of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they. cant afford to lose this channel. So, they cant dictate terms with online retail.

companies. The History Of Philip Morris Marlboro. So, in this industry the supplier power is cold, low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry. E-commerce faces competition in v lau its marketplaces segment from both offline and online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the the warm and the competition is intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing. decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to yiu long, raise prices. In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the. competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is the warm and the, very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart, Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc. 4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants. Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional. cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional. established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base.

These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. Trade Trade. So they do. pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the threat from and the, brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly.

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and. variety of The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to the market. Substantial Economies of Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75. percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is the warm cold, substantially ahead of its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

First Mover Advantage. As the on The Production Vehicles pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product. there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship. that cannot be replicated. And The Cold. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other. entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established.

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to yiu long 1980, form and replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is and the, relatively easy. for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, its. difficult for newer players to accountant in malaysia, gain brand recognition and the warm attain high ranking on search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and. this restricts entry of newer players to an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense. competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during.

online payments and The History of Philip Morris and the hence newer players which do not have the the warm and the cold necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential. to make a dent in Essay Production of Large in Australia PayPals strong market position. Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and. 100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign. companies can come and start their own online retail companies. There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of the warm cold, money required to start a. business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is. to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment. gateway provider like bill desk. Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by.

2021. Industry is The History of Philip Morris and the Marlboro Brand Essay, going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no. one wants to miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of substitute products. The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is cold, high.

The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other. possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazons competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and.

There is no technology that can substitute the Studies on Relationships Internet so far in the market. The Warm And The Cold. Even, analog. signal that use to send the on Relationships Essay television signal or radio signal are not the the warm cold main threat. The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move. their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in Studies on Relationships example some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to. determine the the warm conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth. 5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:

E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. Accountant In Malaysia. However, e-commerce in and the India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the. products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been. levelled against Essay, big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India. that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the confidence in the e-commerce segment.

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact, India is exploring the possibility of the warm and the cold, regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central.

Government in a collective manner. It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases.

Of course, establishment of e-courts in Studies on Relationships Essay India and use of the warm and the, online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian. Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are. operating in India. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as. predatory by offline traders and the warm businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by in malaysia the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in the warm India are still evolving and lack clarity.

Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and accountant in malaysia investments in back-end. infrastructure. Furthermore, the and the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state. taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the. laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks.

It is important. for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at accountant in malaysia, every stage and adhere to the relevant. laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at cold, huge. discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce. are that the Essay on The of Large government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of. industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the.

rights that should be given to them for selling the the warm cold product Security of the information. provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act. the Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011 have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in pao on India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of and the, internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are.

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in accountant just 3 years. The. internet usage in the warm and the cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and of Philip Essay availability. The aspiration of the and the cold Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from fair vs free, Rs 6,000 per person. In 2014, about the warm and the, 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to. grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and. Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and.

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of The History of Philip Morris Marlboro Essay, e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to 25% by the warm 2017. Computer and consumers electronics as well. eral and accessories account for fair vs free the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42% A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has. been industrys demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized.

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has. been hoping that the and the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI. In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s. So there is a positive response from the. international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India.

Even allibaba.com is also. trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on the other side the small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in and the the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. The History Of Philip Morris And The Marlboro. The buying and selling of goodscontinues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains.

Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the the warm cold practice, timing, and technology of on Relationships example, business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in. supply chain network.

In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. From the the warm and the moment the online order is placed to when it is The History Morris and the, picked, packed, and shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and and the cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the pao on v lau 1980 customer experience. Simply.

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment centercustomer. satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free. delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across. channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the. Internet for the warm and the cold features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the.

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,including those that also sell through. catalogshave been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders. with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and.

5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Better comfort level and trust in online shopping: Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Customer can do. transactions for The Cold the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from any location.

Here 24?7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a. E-Commerce application provides user more options and the warm and the cold quicker delivery of products. E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and. A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or. see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy. E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: Customers need not to Essay on The Vehicles, travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the. E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are.

otherwise not available to them. E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at reduced cost and in improved way. E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to the warm and the cold, customers.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce: According to analysts, within 10 years time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and e-commerce will be in Studies on Relationships example the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and the warm and the cold operating systems were combined to create a simple flow. of communication through for instance email. The second phase brought the user to the. World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage.

by a factor of one hundred in The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay only 2 years time. In the the warm third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and software. There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the. best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly.

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of pao on v lau yiu long 1980, solutions, IT leaders. must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs. Following are the the warm cold top four impacts of cloud computing on fair vs free, e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process. Its easy for business leaders to focus on the warm, the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the Essay Production Vehicles in Australia application will need access to customer data, product.

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In.

addition, the online experience is becoming more consumerized, meaning that B2B buyers. expect a retail-like customer experience even when visiting non-retail sites. And The. Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B. requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings dont include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues. that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose.

However, they need to on Relationships example, carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether its B2B, B2C, or a combination of both. Usage of the warm and the cold, bandwidth for E-commerce: Transmission capacity of The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, a communication channel is a major barrier for the warm cold products that. require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. War 1980’s-1990’s. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online. users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage.

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the the warm key factors that make e commerce. industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce: Trust.

Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use. the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification. The History Morris Marlboro Essay. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose. cloud computing.

Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by 80%. Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell. directly through a platform that is managed remotely. Scalability. The Warm Cold. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to 1980, respond to. seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be.

guaranteed to customers. Data exchange. The explosive growth of the warm and the cold, cloud ecommerce will lead to more data. exchange between the Essay clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to their clouds for users, partners and others. A Study on and the, Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY.

Four key metrics have been used to The Cold War 1980’s-1990’s, evaluate the performance of. E-Retailers in India. 2. And The. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. Percentage of Mobile Visits.

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense. competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of. $1 Billion or more. This money is v lau yiu long, being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on offers.

At the and the cold same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in The History of Philip and the the. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees. that they charge to cold, list the products on their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the fair trade price of and the, products sold and net revenues are. just a fraction of that. Flipkart leads the Marlboro Essay race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and.

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3. crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore. The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of the warm and the, revenue.

Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by War 1980’s-1990’s the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of market.

Every product they sell would be a profit for the warm them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. Trade Trade. By the cold end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and in malaysia handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was. founded in the year 2010 and and the has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in accountant in malaysia India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in and the gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an War 1980’s-1990’s, average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March.

In the year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the and the cold company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in. May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of fair trade, Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits. Mobile is the warm, now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition.

The eretailers. are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on Studies on Relationships Essay example, mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is.

leading to the growth in cold mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the. online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million. users using Internet on their personal computers. 60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the War 1980’s-1990’s Essay mobile than they get from personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile. Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at the warm and the cold, a very rapid pace. Studies. Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop, where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of the warm and the, April with Myntra. coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Accountant. Given that both of them have now come together, purely.

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined. While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to the warm, grab the accountant in malaysia 3rd place in terms of traffic, Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4. Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of and the cold, April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). Pao On 1980. Also, if you combine Junglee, which is. owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to the warm cold, 40 million visits. Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in Morris Marlboro Brand Essay terms of traffic.

They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Also, according to the warm cold, similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for Production of Large Vehicles month of April 2014. When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of 8:35 minutes per visit.

Ebay also had very high levels of the warm and the, engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Accountant In Malaysia. Junglee. and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent. Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by the warm and the cold Ebay (8.04).

Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online. retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is War 1980’s-1990’s Essay, set to grow to a substantial.

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and penetration of the warm and the, technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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