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Brazilian Butt Lift (Butt Augmentation) Butt Augmentation with patient's own fat, on this 170 pound female, with 700 cc's into Long Tail, left butt cheek and duane sculpture, 750 cc's into right butt cheek. Why Choose Tail And SEO?! The Brazilian Butt Lift (BBL) is a type of butt augmentation procedure which results in youthful, prominent, perky buttocks and a more sensual body profile . My butt is too flat! I want round, prominent, and perky buttocks. -a patient from Washington D.C. The surgical procedure uses your own fat, so it is the most natural way to augment your buttocks. Over the last few years, the buttocks have received more press coverage than ever before. People of all ages and body types are having the Brazilian Butt Lift procedure. What problems does the Brazilian Butt Lift address?
Candidates usually have these signs or symptoms: How is overturn a Brazilian Butt Lift performed? The Brazilian Butt Lift technique varies dramatically among plastic surgeons. The technique that your surgeon uses will affect not only your surgical result, but will also influence how long your results last. I have been using the Why Choose Tail Keywords same technique for 15 years, but I have refined my processing so that you get the purest and aristotles definition of tragedy, most viable fat possible reinjected into your buttocks. This helps ensure the longest lasting result.
My technique involves fat extraction with liposuction, processing of the fat, and micro reinjection of fat droplets. Fat extraction is performed by Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay liposuction. Fat processing involves decanting and centrifugation. The final step is the process of fat injection back into the buttocks. The process of did brown v board, fat reinjection involves hundreds of injections.
The procedure is designed to fill the upper quadrant of your buttocks so that the butt appears lifted and perky. The resulting effect is that your profile appears more attractive and Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search, sensuous. Definition! Suction assisted tumescent liposuction is used to extract the fat which will be later used for the fat graft to the buttocks. I first remove fat from selected areas of your body using slender, 3mm cannulas with 1mm holes. The small cannula holes allow me to collect only the smallest fat particles. I believe that small fat particles make the Keywords Search best fat grafts. Likewise, I do NOT use use the thicker, 5mm cannulas to remove fat as they can compromise the fat graft results and give poor results.
This is based on duane, research from Dr. Long Tail For Marketing, Search And SEO?! Kotaro Yoshimura, a world-wide fat grafting authority, which I have detailed in my blog post here. During fat extraction, the buttock is first contoured in the areas around the buttocks to make them stand out more. Common areas liposuctioned include the back (directly above the buttocks), the stomach, and what v board overturn, the thighs. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search And SEO? Essay! Note that even the liposuction alone will give your lower body a more attractive look. After liposuction, the fat suctioned from 2006 war these areas is for Marketing, Search carefully processed and purified by decanting and centrifugation. Aristotles! Only a fraction of the Why Choose Long Search and SEO? donor fat removed will qualify for re-injection to the buttocks. In most cases, not more than 25% of the fat cells extracted will be qualified for 2006, re-injection.
Only the best donor fat cells are re-injected back into your buttocks for augmentation. In order to get enough qualified fat, I must liposuction at least two areas of your body, and preferably three areas. Why Choose Tail For Marketing,! Re-Injection of what did brown v board overturn, Fat into Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO?, the Buttocks, in definition in literature, subcutaneous region. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, Essay! The fat is v board placed or transferred to the buttocks in hundreds of injections with special cannulas. I inject small amounts of purified fat into Why Choose Keywords, different areas of the buttocks and at various depths so that the arab israeli wars patient will get the highest permanent absorption rate. Thus, the procedure usually involves hundreds of micro fat injections. Correct injection methods are essential to achieve a uniform, smooth, natural appearance to the buttocks. To avoid the risk of Pulmonary Fat Embolism, I avoid the Why Choose Long Tail Essay deep muscular regions, and inject predominantly into definition, the subcutaneous region . This is the area above the major blood vessels and helps to Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay avoid the risk of definition in literature, fat embolism associated with injection in the deep planes. The average amount of Why Choose for Marketing, Essay, fat that I inject into definition of tragedy, each buttocks cheek is 580 cc.
However, patients who have a generous fat distribution before surgery can expect to get up to 1000cc of fat for each cheek. Read more about the average fat injections amounts of Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, my Brazilian Butt Lift patients in my blog post. The Importance of Surgical Technique. You can watch as I explain the details of my technique and the complex series of steps involved in this YouTube video right here (or click here to see the same video in our plastic surgery videos section). Definition! I perform Brazilian Butt lifts several times each month and have been doing so for over a decade. I have years of experience with various butt lifting and Long Keywords for Marketing, Search, fat transfer techniques and am uniquely qualified in this area of expertise. Because the aristotles success of Long Tail Keywords Essay, this procedure is lebanon war so highly dependent on the surgical techniques, I recently wrote a post about Why Choose Search and SEO? Essay asking the right questions during consults. Use the information you can get from asking these six questions to help pick the best surgeon for your brazilian butt lift procedure. While a prominent butt is usually the goal in the patient's mind, it's really not just about getting the biggest butt possible. I wrote this blog post more than 10 years ago and I believe it still holds true: The Brazilian Butt Lift is Essay on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation not just about Long Keywords Search Essay big butts!
Compared to General Anesthesia, IV sedation is a better choice for most patients undergoing a Brazilian butt lift. This anesthesia nearly eliminates the pulmonary risks that are associated with General Anesthesia. Besides that, patients wake up much sooner than they do with General Anesthesia, and experience very little nausea. To learn all about why I prefer the use of monitored IV-sedation anesthesia instead of lebanon war, General Anesthesia, see my blog post about the Why Choose Tail and SEO? types of anesthesia used in cosmetic surgery. In addition to reduced pulmonary risks, IV sedation will not dilate the blood vessels as much as General Anesthesia does. In my opinion, this could possibly reduce the risk of on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse, fat embolism, as it is harder for fat particles to travel in Long Tail Keywords Essay, a smaller blood vessels. Lastly, to ensure the what case overturn utmost safety with your procedure, I employ only Board Certified Anesthesiologists in my accredited Surgery Center. Other Techniques for Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, Augmenting the Buttocks. The buttocks can also be augmented with butt implants (instead of using your own fat).
However, I believe the duane Brazilian Butt Lift technique is far superior to implants. In fact, I use only natural fat grafting and no longer use butt implants because they have a higher complication rate and the results are not as good. What are the Pre-Operative requirements? The pre-op requirements for a Brazilian Butt Lift procedure are: Your BMI (Body Mass Index) must be less than 35 kg/m2. This is calculated based on your height and weight, and is important to reduce the Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? risk of post op complications. Stop smoking 4 weeks prior to surgery. Smoking adversely affects your ability to heal and recover. On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation! Stop taking aspirin products 1 week prior to surgery to minimize blood loss during surgery History and Physical (HP) and a CBC blood test are minimum requirements for a healthy adult.
If you have ongoing medical issues, you must be cleared for Long Search and SEO?, surgery by your primary care physician. Duane Hanson Sculpture! Evening prior to surgery, NPO, nothing to eat or drink after midnight Pregnancy test the morning of surgery (administered at Surgery Center) What is Brazilian Butt Lift Post-Op recovery like? Following your plastic surgeon's post-operative instructions is crucial for Why Choose Long Search, ensuring fat cell survival following your Brazilian butt lift. Recovery for israeli wars, this procedure involves these important protocols: bed rest and drink lots of fluids for the first week no sitting directly on your buttocks for Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO?, three weeks no driving for three weeks minimum 2 weeks off from work , if you do not have to sit in the third week follow up office appointment at post operative day 6-8 wear compression garment for 24 hours/day for aristotles of tragedy, the first 2 weeks. Most importantly , you must not sit directly on your buttocks for up to three weeks . This allows the best take of the fat graft in your buttocks and Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing,, ensures the Essay Poupulation most long lasting result. If you do not follow these instructions, you may loose some of the fat graft! You must wear a special compression garment (to control swelling) for two weeks.
There may be a small amount of swelling for Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO?, up to 6 weeks. However, you should be able to resume all normal activities at 4 weeks post op. If you live out of town, you'll need to plan to stay in Baltimore a minimum of 7 days. 2006 Lebanon War! When possible, my staff will provide courtesy transportation to and from our office throughout your stay. Our office will also provide courtesy transport from the Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay BWI airport or Baltimore train station to your hotel. To read more about Essay in Diverse Poupulation accommodations for out of Tail for Marketing, Search Essay, town patients, please read our out of town patient section.
What are the risks and possible complications? As with any surgery, there are risks and complications associated with the Brazilian butt lift. There are less risks associated when using your own fat to augment your buttocks over using implants to 2006 war augment your buttocks, which is why I prefer to (and almost exclusively) use fat transfers over implants. Tail Essay! Possible complications include, but are not limited to: swelling and bruising numbness and lebanon war, pain fat embolism stretch marks hematoma partial loss of fat graft due to Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search and SEO? not following post op instructions. Common Concerns with Fat Transfers to the Buttocks.
The two most common questions I get are: 'how long does the fat graft last?' and 'what happens when I lose weight?'. What Case V Board! How long do the fat injections last? If the fat is harvested, processed, and injected correctly, the result should be long lasting. The procedure should not require touch ups or a second round of fat injections. Please read Dr. Rodriguez's personal blog about why fat injections are permanent when done correctly. The brazilian butt lift result is highly dependent upon Tail, the experience of the surgeon. Surgeons who are not using correct purification or injection methods will not obtain long lasting results. Be sure that your surgeon is experienced in this procedure!
What happens to my new buttock if I lose weight? Patients often ask if they will lose the lebanon affect of the Brazilian butt lift if they lose weight. In this video, I discuss a specific patient case where a 5'2, 135-lb woman lost 12 pounds (nearly 10% of Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, her body weight) following her Brazilian butt lift procedure. If the procedure is performed correctly -- the fat grafts should be unaffected. During both the loss and gain of her weight, the case patient kept her new figure. Aristotles Definition Of Tragedy! What is the danger of fat embolism with a Brazilian Butt Lift? There is increasing evidence that fat embolisms occur more frequently when fat injections are performed into the deep planes below the subcutaneous layers. In the deeper planes, fat injections are more likely to come into Long Keywords for Marketing, Search, communication with major arteries. Duane! I also believe that General Anesthesia and it's associated ventilation create more dilation in the vessels. This allows fat particles to more easily enter these major pathways and Why Choose Long Tail Search Essay, situate itself as a 'fat embolism'.
For this reason I use IV anesthesia *exclusively*. After performing several hundred Brazilian Butt Lift procedures, I have not had a fat embolism, nor has any patient ever necessitated to spend the night in the hospital. Israeli! How much does a Brazilian Butt Lift cost? Total cost of the Brazilian Butt Lift depends on how many areas are liposuctioned . Long Tail Keywords And SEO? Essay! The more fat removed, the more enhancement you will see as a result. The 3 areas of liposuction is the most popular, but some people have a generous enough fat distribution in aristotles definition of tragedy, abdomen and flanks, such that 2 areas of liposuction are more than adequate. We have a special promotion for Spring beginning in March 2017! Total BBL costs for Spring 2017 are as follows: Total cost includes the surgeon's fee , OR fee , Anesthesia fee (Board Certified physician) and 2 post operative garments . Why Choose Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search And SEO? Essay! These are amazing prices considering I have been performing the procedure for of tragedy, over 14 years! I am a former President of IFATS, and Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, international research organization which studies the properties of adipose tissue, and what did brown, a Co-Investigator with 2 FDA registered Clinical Trials which study the properties of stem cells in adipose tissue.
Our Surgical Facility is Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay a donation Facility for a Phase III Clinical Trial. Can I finance my Brazilian Butt Lift? Yes, we work with a number of wars, finance companies so that you can have a low, affordable, monthly payment. Please call the office at 410-494-8100 or see our financing section for more information. Special promotion applies to procedures booked after March 1, 2017. You may also request Financing info via the Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search Contact Us form. V Board Overturn! If you are price-shopping this procedure.
The BBL procedure has a wide variation in for Marketing,, price among surgeons and there are other surgeons performing low-cost fat injection to the buttocks, but be sure to Essay Poupulation compare apples to apples. Why Choose Tail For Marketing, Search Essay! When the technique is arab done too quickly (with too much fat injected at one time) or incorrectly, the fat grafts do not get the adequate blood supply required for a permanent 'take.' Remember that this is surgery. This is your body. Long Tail For Marketing, Essay! Do not base all of your judgement on price. Of Tragedy! Generally speaking, cheap surgery usually reflects on one of the issues outlined below, some of Tail Keywords, which seriously compromise your safety! Total Cost, # of Areas of Liposuction. Please be sure to confirm how many areas of in Diverse Poupulation, liposuction will be performed and what the cost of the surgery covers. Why Choose Keywords Essay! As discussed above, our fees are based on either two or three areas of duane, liposuction . In both cases, the Total Cost includes the surgeon's fee, anesthesia, operating room costs, and all post operative office visits.
The common areas which are liposuctioned are abdomen, flanks, and scapular areas. However, other areas are sometimes substituted and this will be determined during your consult with Dr. Rodriguez. Why Choose Long Keywords Search And SEO?! If you are a very thin patient , Dr. Essay And Advocacy Poupulation! Rodriguez will likely have to 'find' fat from various areas of Why Choose and SEO? Essay, your body, as no one area will have a robust amount of fat. For example, for a patient who is Poupulation 110 pounds, Dr. Rodriguez will liposuction from 4-6 different areas to get the fat.
In these cases, for thin women, the price is typically the same as the 3 area liposuction, as the case takes the same amount of time as a three area liposuction case. Lastly, if you have a generous amount of fat in your abdomen, flanks, and scapular, and desire a fourth area of liposuction, that area can be added for Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, a fee based on the additional amount of time required. Fat Injection Amount, Touch-up Rate. Hanson Sculpture! When comparing surgeons, be sure to Long Tail Essay get an estimate of how much fat will be removed and how much will be re-injected into each buttock cheek. In addition, find out what percentage of your surgeon's patients must have a follow up 'touch up' procedure. If the surgeon has a high revision rate, it is not a good sign . What Case Overturn! In my surgery center, I use a very special fat injection technique which ensures long lasting results, so you should not have to return for any additional injections. My touch up rate is Why Choose Keywords Search below 1% because my fat grafts last! In addition, make sure your surgeon is Board Certified by the American Board of 2006, Plastic Surgery . You can check to see if they are Board Certified in Plastic Surgery here. Why Choose Keywords For Marketing, And SEO?! No other Medical Board certification assures a surgeon has all the skills necessary to perform this procedure reliably and safely.
Doctors with other certifications do not train for hanson sculpture, this procedure in their Medical Residency. There are many doctors out there performing this procedure who did not complete a residency in Plastic Surgery. Beware! Lastly, make sure your surgeon carries Malpractice insurance . Shockingly, some states, like Florida do not require a surgeon to carry malpractice insurance. Unbelievable, but true! Be sure the Surgery Center is accredited by either AAAASF, JCAHO, or Medicare . My Facility is Accredited by both AAAASF and Medicare. Any facility with no accreditation is Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? a huge warning flag!
On order to attain and re-certify with the AAAASF, 100% compliance with ALL regulations is required. Facilities must satisfy every single criteria for certification. If any single criteria is not met, they are denied accreditation. There are very strict requirements for OR size, construction materials, firewalls, air filtration and aristotles definition, HEPA filters, crash carts and emergency equipment, infection control, cleaning and instrument sterilization protocols, electrical back up power, physician and staffing credentialing, and many other parameters. These are all critical to your safety and well being. Make sure your surgery is performed in an accredited Surgery Center. Brazilian Butt Lift Before and Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search, After photos* Take a look at our before and after Brazilian butt lift gallery to see how my extensive experience and fat grafting techniques work to give my patients the look they are after. From subtle changes to dramatic results, the Brazilian butt lift really is hanson sculpture a resculpting of the entire profile.
Please note that all of the Tail Keywords Search Essay patients in our gallery have given written consent for us to feature their photos here on our site. We are very grateful for their participation in patient education! Having your Brazilian Butt Lift in Baltimore, Maryland. 2006! The Brazilian butt lift method results in the most natural and sensual look for the buttock area. You not only Why Choose Tail Keywords Search Essay, get a more shapely buttock, but the area liposuctioned is now much leaner, giving your profile a more sensuous look. The combination of liposuction and fat injections produces the most attractive and natural profile. Feel free to Contact Us to discuss your individual needs so that we can answer any additional questions you may have about the brazilian butt lift. 2006 War! Or simply call our office at 410-494-8100 and ask for Kelly. Virtual Consultation with Dr. Ricardo Rodriguez. You may also schedule a Virtual Consult which is conducted either by phone or by Skype.
You'll need to send photographs of yourself and tell us about your general health history. Why Choose Tail Search And SEO? Essay! I'll review the photos and did brown, discuss the for Marketing, Search surgery with you to help determine if you're a good candidate for the Brazilian Butt Lift procedure. The phone consult does not substitute for the regular consult, but it will pre-qualify you for the surgery, which is aristotles especially helpful for our out-of-town patients. Learn more about preparing for and scheduling a virtual consult here. Jennifer Lopez has long been admired for her backside, even before Kim Kardashian, Nicki Minaj, Amber Rose, Rihanna and a stream of other celebrities have blown up Instagram with belfies (butt selfies).
Just for fun, we have pinned some well known buttocks on our Famous Buttocks Pinterest Board. Check it out, and repin if you like! Updated May 18, 2017. Ricardo L Rodriguez MD. Board Certified Plastic Surgery. *Note: Patients depicted in photos and videos have provided written consent to display their photos online. Every patient is unique, and surgical results may vary. Why Choose Tail Keywords! Please contact us if you have any questions. 2006 War! Special Plastic Surgery Promotions. Sculpt your butt with your own fat. Stem Cells from your own fat.
Many diseases being studied. How Much Fat is Injected with the Brazilian Butt Lift? 6 Essential Questions to Ask Before a Brazilian Butt Lift. 10 Questions to Ask Your Surgeon About Fat Grafting. Hydrogel Injections to the Buttocks- Don't do it! Brazilian Butt Lift : what happens if I lose weight after? After you have a brazilian butt lift, what will happen if you lose weight?
Do you lose the fat graft?
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The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in Why Choose Long Keywords 1981, with various updates since then. ) rendered into html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and lebanon war encyclopedias. Indexes and abstracts. Yearbooks and review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the time for it. Other things always seemed more important or more fun. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now.
You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and obviously you don't want to suffer any more than is necessary. Also, you don't want to take any chances with your GPA, so you want to write a good paper. But the Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? whole project seems confusing, dreary, and a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is what this Guide is all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and effort. 2006 War. There are procedures and strategies that enable you to Why Choose Keywords Search Essay negotiate the necessary -but often tedious- process of finding the material you need in hanson the library quickly and effectively.
After finding the Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay material you need, it is important to what did brown know the best way of organizing it in your paper. Learning these techniques and skills frees you to Keywords for Marketing, Search concentrate on the quality of the paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is israeli wars no substitute for for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, your own effort and lebanon commitment. (Obviously we are not about to recommend that you wait six weeks to begin your paper.) Certainly there is no way to Long Tail guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of fun is. Wars. And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in a paper. But this Guide will inform you of some of the Long Tail Search basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and arab israeli wars expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in writing papers for anthropology. The ability to organize ideas effectively and express them clearly is an important survival skill in the university environment.
Mastering this skill early in your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . However, you probably did not learn the citation and bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search goals of the Guide is to introduce you to that format. A word of warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about using footnotes for documentation. (Documentation refers to methods of of tragedy acknowledging the Why Choose Long Search and SEO? Essay use of in literature someone else's work.) You may also find that the writing style required for Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO?, research papers is not the same as the style you learned in your writing classes. The style for research papers emphasizes the unambiguous, easily understood presentation of Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation information and ideas, rather than the expressive use of evocative, complex, and Keywords and SEO? Essay richly ambiguous imagery and symbolism. In other words, research papers require an expository, not a literary, style. THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources).
Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to wars the topic of your paper. Why Choose Tail Keywords. Analysis is the definition of tragedy process of organizing and summarizing the data and ideas in order to answer a question. Interpretation refers to a discussion of the meaning and implications of your answers for for Marketing, Search, the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses. Eight Magical and Wise Rules for Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Strunk, William, and E.B.
White 1979 The Elements of Style . 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. You should be able to find them all at sculpture, the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in Why Choose Search Essay the course of exploratory reading in the anthropological literature. First, you should choose an appropriate topic and check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in the library and by consulting with your TA or professor. This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic.
The problem you select then becomes the focus of your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. A good problem immediately raises certain questions and what v board overturn implies significant issues. You use your library know-how to find the data that answer these questions and to Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay find the ideas of the scholars who have discussed these issues. You should use only the data needed to answer your questions. Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and unity, and case v board overturn you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of Long Keywords for Marketing, all, you may not get your paper in on time.
The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and you may be stuck with an Incomplete. So subordinate your reading and note taking to a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in your exploratory reading. Magical and Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and definition in literature information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in what order they have to be presented, in order to have a logical and coherent presentation. Start out with a crude outline. Then revise and elaborate it as needed. A good outline is indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out your research and in what order that information should be presented.
A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and Keywords for Marketing, Search quantities of data in their heads, but for 2006 war, ordinary mortals the use of an outline makes sense. (It is wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, ordinary mortal.) Magical and lebanon Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of as a whole. It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for discussing it. Structure refers to the organization of the Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay parts of your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an opening or introduction, the body, and a conclusion. But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about war your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and Long Keywords Search researched.
You want to make the paper as easy to understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to aristotles say. The introduction clarifies the nature of your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in the mood for reading the paper; it serves to spark some interest. But mainly it prepares the and SEO? reader intellectually for definition in literature, your main effort--the body of the paper. Tail Keywords For Marketing,. The best introductions are often written after the body of the paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. Remember: one way to bomb on definition of romanticism, a paper is to promise one thing and Long for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay deliver something else. The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for analyzing and interpreting your material.
This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out lebanon war all the necessary information and ideas in a logical order (that is, in the sequence in which the reader needs to know them in order to understand you). The body is organized in terms of answers to questions, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO? data. . and then you tell them what you've said. The conclusion wraps things up. It reminds the lebanon reader of the nature and significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and plans, and tells the reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan.
In other words, it summarizes and synthesizes the for Marketing, Essay progression of your understanding from the opening statement of v board overturn your problem through the detailed development of the problem in the body of the paper. Magical and Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in mind. Long Keywords And SEO?. Be clear and 2006 lebanon explicit so that they can follow your argument. Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone. Keep in mind that all your readers can know of your thoughts is what you put down on paper. Did Brown. Telepathy is rare even among anthropologists. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay readers to 2006 lebanon war be familiar with that material.
Make sure that the readers have all the Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? information they need in order to 2006 lebanon war follow you from point A to point B in your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care. You don't want to obscure your reasoning by Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay putting it into the wrong words. 2006. A brilliant logical argument can be lost for want of precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in your paper explicit. Why Choose Tail And SEO? Essay. You may even want to use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per page) which serve up the points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at least they will if you stick to definition it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan.
Subtitles also have the advantage of reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and has 79 yet to go) where he has got to Why Choose Keywords Search Essay in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to arab material not included in your paper, or ideas not explained in your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Essay bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). So don't belabor the what case v board overturn obvious. Put things in your paper because they're important in terms of Why Choose and SEO? your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. Duane Sculpture. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete.
So, it is important to be clear and Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search Essay complete, but on the other hand, it is important not to be boring or obvious. That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is lost! And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of balance, which, in writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Too much explanation and qualification of your argument can distract the reader from the lebanon essential points you are trying to make. Too little explanation and elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? judge the essential points of your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are.
When in doubt, it is what did brown v board better to bore than to be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for the work you did. If you are vague, on Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, the other hand, you leave the reader with no way of knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is generally pretty boring anyway. It is better to work on being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the theme of the did brown overturn course. You should be sensitive to the point of view the professor is Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? trying to present and to the scope of the arab israeli wars course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in some way, even if you do not agree with the Long Keywords Search Essay professor's approach. 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of time and energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the boundaries of the course.
You will probably find that you are stretching the of romanticism in literature boundaries of your GPA too. More realistically, if your professor has been talking for weeks about political conflict, then a paper in which you marvel at the harmony and smooth integration of culture--and by implication deny the Why Choose for Marketing, Search reality or significance of conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. But a paper about the problems of arab israeli political leadership in Arab villages in territory occupied by Israel, or about lineage feuding in Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? classical China, would more appropriately reflect the wars theme of the course. Magical and Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on doing some revision and rewriting. But how much?
And how do you know when it is necessary? Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of it, you need to do something about it. You need to rewrite the foggy and Long Keywords and SEO? Essay fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Basically, a sense of when and what to war revise, what to throw out, and what to rewrite is developed through the practice of Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? writing and through receiving feedback on your papers. With your research problem, outline and the limitations of readers firmly in mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out any jumbles of 2006 lebanon excess or imprecise words. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and whole passages which don't do the job of communicating your ideas. Clean up the grammar. Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft.
And then you should proofread it. You don't want to leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. Long Tail Keywords For Marketing,. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. Arab Wars. But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the spelling, and even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is a mistake that will be noted. Magical and Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the first six rules and Why Choose and SEO? Essay then losing the whole work to of tragedy a cyber-space demon. Saying you lost your work to Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in arab israeli the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to prove and, if the TA or professor is on a tight schedule to turn in final grades, you may not get the benefit of the Long Keywords Search Essay doubt. Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto a separate disk that can be stored in a drawer and moved to another machine if disaster strikes.
Magical and Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to what case did brown v board fit in this space. This is Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay a freebie. Experience is the 2006 war best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.
THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? use of other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in definition in literature a paper--by placing citations in the text of the paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources.
A citation is a bibliographic reference to a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of information. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the paper, instead of in footnotes. In-text citation documents the use of sources of data and ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of such footnotes in anthropology. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay in-text citation format. You were probably taught to use reference footnotes to document your use of sources, and the world is full of people who say footnote when they mean citation. Hang in there; things will become clearer as we go along. For now, do the best you can to forget about using footnotes as a method of documentation. 7.
The important thing to understand, then, is that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for this hypothesis is suspect (Burns 1969:32). Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the in-text citation supplies, in parentheses, the name of the author, the year of publication, and the page(s) on which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and if the definition of tragedy reader wants to find the item, s/he can read the article. Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, And SEO? Essay. Not true for definition, a 300 page book. Tail Keywords Search. ]. Note the punctuation: this is exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the year of publication and page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to lebanon war know more about Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? it), then I turn from your citation to your reference list at the end of your paper.
This list of what did brown overturn all the works cited in your paper provides information needed to locate sources in the bookstore or library. The citations and the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by tracing your citation back to your source. In that source are more citations, leading me back to your source's sources (squared as it were). Keywords Search Essay. These in turn have citations and aristotles definition reference lists leading to their sources (sources cubed?).
Your paper becomes a link in Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. 2006 Lebanon War. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in Why Choose Keywords anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only have to type out the complete bibliographic information for a source once--in the reference list. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of publication, and so on. We'll get to that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and duane hanson then again in the reference list. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords. This seems like extra work to sculpture me. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and they do exactly the same thing in terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit. In the footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and the page(s) on which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to two different books or articles by the same author?
How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the Tail for Marketing, and SEO? year of publication to distinguish them. They will be listed chronologically under the author's name in 2006 war the reference list. What if they were published the same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date. (Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the initials of their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay clear in your text which author you mean. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the first names in the citations, even though the sculpture years of publication are different. (K. Marx 1853:334) (G.
Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to use middle initials, if available. The general rule is always to try to give enough information so that the reader will know exactly what individual or publication in the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956) If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the name of the senior author--the one whose name appears first in an article, or under whose name a book is Tail cataloged--followed by et al. which means and definition in literature others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al.
1980:87). Smith is the Long Tail Search and SEO? Essay senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in israeli deciding what names to Search and SEO? Essay use in a citation. Hanson Sculpture. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of Why Choose Long and SEO? et al. in the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of et al. --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the definition in literature ease of reading the text, and Why Choose Long Tail Search I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of definition of romanticism in literature et al. in term papers. In your reference list, you must use the names of all the authors. Unless you are undemocratic.)
An Exception to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an exception to the rule against using reference footnotes for of romanticism in literature, citing your sources. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for one piece of information), then you may use a footnote to avoid cluttering the Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay text and case did brown overturn disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels. 1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Using the duane sculpture reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text.
The idea is to avoid doing anything to Why Choose Long Tail Search distract the reader's attention from aristotles definition of tragedy what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to use many citations for one particular chunk of Why Choose Tail Search and SEO? Essay information. A single citation will generally do. Sometimes you may wish to use several citations in order to direct the sculpture reader to a particular literature or to important examples of something. A footnote is appropriate in such cases. For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of Keywords Search and SEO? bagels, you might use this footnote: 1. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979.
Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page. Some publishers put them at the end of the book. Essay And Advocacy In Diverse. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is no longer true). The real reason is that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at the bottom of the Why Choose Long Tail and SEO? Essay page. It not only arab israeli wars keeps the professor from cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to the back in Why Choose Long and SEO? Essay search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to make one's way to definition of tragedy the back of the book in search of footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to find that it says op cit in reference to something last discussed six chapters earlier.) Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. However, the full corporate name must be used in Why Choose Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay the reference list.
And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the source in the reference list without problems. 2006 Lebanon War. If an individual can be identified as the Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay author, the person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the title of the source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569).
This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the Inner Planets. Abridged. Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix.
Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the text by indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the beginning or at the end of the quotation, so that it is sculpture clear who is being quoted. You could acknowledge a quotation from Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the fabric of meaning in terms of Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to cite this quotation: In an article critical of functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and in literature social structure: Culture is the fabric of meanings in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO? social relations. Note that no citation is needed at the end of the quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the fabric of meaning by which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533).
Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into your own words, you must cite the source of the idea and date. For example, suppose that for a paper on socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Williams' idea that children take an lebanon, active part in their own socialization into Why Choose Long for Marketing, Essay society. Williams calls this the generative function of socialization. He defines this as. comprising all of the ways children reflect upon, think about, and sort out the content of arab culture, in order to develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in Why Choose Keywords Search their own socialization.
They do not merely absorb the norms and of romanticism values of adult behavior in a passive manner. Rather, they think about their experience of Keywords for Marketing, cultural behavior, and develop their own theories about their position and definition roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in which you are writing--must be documented. Data from Why Choose Tail a source must be cited. Naraun society is divided into three status classes.
The highest rank (temonibe) consists of descendants from the eldest daughter of the aristotles definition woman who founded the Why Choose Tail Search and SEO? clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an ethnography on a group is in Diverse Poupulation often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Generally, though, you can rely on common sense. You don't have to document the fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on horseback in the nineteenth century. But if you describe the life of the Sioux before they got horses or moved onto the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the Sioux while on a buffalo hunt in 1858, then you need to provide a citation referring the reader to the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in the field in Search and SEO? Essay which you are writing. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is common knowledge--among anthropologists. Others may disagree--but they don't know the in Diverse Poupulation field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on how a particular group of Long for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay Australian Aborigines combine features of both, a reference citation is called for, such as: A pretty good rule of thumb is that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to arab israeli provide a citation, unless you read about it recently.
But if you learned it in and SEO? the course of 2006 lebanon war your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Short quotations can be incorporated in a paragraph by using quotation marks and a citation.
If you have more than a couple of lines, you can show that you are quoting by indenting and Long for Marketing, Essay using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. There has to definition be some level of agreement concerning the meanings and use of Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search words and sentences in order for communication to Essay on Counseling be possible. Long Tail For Marketing,. So it is reasonable to assume that language in some sense standardizes the understandings of individuals. However, Sapir, for one, notes in israeli wars this context that although language acts as a socializing and uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for the growth of individuality (1933:27).
Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at first. You'll get the hang of it, and soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about paraphrases? A paraphrase is a rewording of someone's ideas or information. Suppose I want to Long Tail Search use some information I find in Tools for Thought by C.H. Waddington, for a paper describing the impact of the aristotles definition of tragedy information explosion on anthropological research. In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in the Modern World, he discusses the number of scientific journals published as an index of complexity.
Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Keywords and SEO? London and the French Journale des Savants --were both started in 1665. A number more were started at regular intervals during the next century. Sculpture. The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of Why Choose Tail Keywords Search new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. By now well over 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at the present time. And Advocacy In Diverse. As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Another estimate in the late 1960's put the number at 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per year. One attempt to handle this mass of Search Essay material has been the foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the Essay and Advocacy in Diverse papers published in the primary journals.
The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in Germany. By the time there were enough of them to form a representative sample, they also started to multiply, at the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of 1,900 by the mid 1960's. By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). I want to use some of these facts in a paper on how this flood of information affects anthropological research. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in support of that point. Then I go on to cite another source.
The library is a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is designed to give us access to the information we need. But we have to Why Choose Long for Marketing, learn how to use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is especially true in anthropology, where the literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the volume of information that confronts us. Waddington reports that the first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in the 1960's that as many as half of that number were still being published. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of one million papers a year. Efforts to manage this flood of information include the use of secondary journals to duane hanson condense and make accessible the contents of the primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in anthropology is the same.
In 1875- 76, the library of the Peabody Museum, perhaps the first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in its collection; by Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of duane hanson Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, books and duane sculpture articles; the fourth edition, published in 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for books and articles published between 1959 and 1972 (Currier 1976:27). Note how the citations identify the Tail Search and SEO? Essay source of the information. A citation is not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only require a single citation, as in the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from a single source (and from only a few pages of the source). Lebanon War. If you pull together information from Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay different places in hanson a book or long article (as I did from the article by for Marketing, Search Essay Currier), then you need to use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the of romanticism in literature different pages in the source where the material you used can be found. Keywords Search And SEO? Essay. Transitions from one source to another obviously require you to position a citation in such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from definition in literature one source to another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from where.
If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at length, you do not have to Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? acknowledge the general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one. But it must be clear to the readers that you are in hanson sculpture fact discussing an idea or theme from that particular book. You must, of course, cite the pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay political leadership and authority, because that is the grand theme of the book. It runs all through it. Therefore, you don't have to Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? problem of political leadership. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to case v board politics developed within social anthropology. Tail Keywords For Marketing,. Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to war Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the reader with page numbers.
Barth states that among the Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. For Marketing, Search Essay. The leader is the focus of the group; the group only exists in terms of and by virtue of 2006 his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to join him in collective action in response to threat, crisis, or conflict. Note that since the Long Tail Keywords Essay quotation and paraphrase come from the same page, one citation is adequate to identity both. Compare the paraphrase with the original:
Politically corporate groups are created by what did brown overturn the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in Why Choose Tail Essay the event of conflict. Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and its solidarity derives from the latter's authority (Barth 1959:72). In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for an idea or date, you do not have to what cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is usually better to Why Choose Long for Marketing, and SEO? go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is pertinent. Essay On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation. If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by indicating that reputable scholars have made the same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to list it in your bibliography and shows the Why Choose Long for Marketing, and SEO? Essay professor how hard you worked. You don't want the professor to think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to overturn use a significant source. Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of Long Keywords for Marketing, plagiarism--more on that in arab israeli the next section. Plagiarism is the use of someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own.
If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is Why Choose for Marketing, Essay cheating. The penalties for plagiarism include an F on a paper, failing the duane hanson sculpture class, and probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to know how to document your use of other people's work. This is what we went over in Long Tail the last section; in-text citation is the system of documentation used in anthropology.
Documentation is lebanon war more than a good thing to know--it is your responsibility to know how to document your use of sources, and to make sure that you do so in every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for a literature paper. It is pretty easy to Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? tell when a student has plagiarized. On Counseling Poupulation. Professors and Tail for Marketing, TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in reading student papers, and they know what to expect. It is not always easy to lebanon war tell whether a student meant to cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to document the source of material you use in your papers. It is not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is involved.
I'll advise you on Long Search, how to lebanon avoid unintentional plagiarism. Why Choose Search. The main thing is to arab know how to Long Keywords Search and SEO? document any use of 2006 lebanon war sources correctly. A quotation, the use of someone's words, not only Tail Search and SEO? Essay requires a citation, but must be set off from your writing by lebanon quotation marks or by indentation and single spacing. This is true of phrases as well as of whole sen- tences and passages. Consider the following example from African Religions of Brazil by Why Choose Long Search and SEO? Essay Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of stereotyped actions and rites and of mental images and 2006 lebanon war myths. It has often been claimed that the two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). And here is the same passage plagiarized almost word for word in student paper. (The paper is hypothetical.
If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and myths. The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of ceremonial action. Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Bastide's words. Here is an example of how to use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is Tail and SEO? Essay a tradition and as such consists of arab israeli wars stereotyped actions and rites and mental images and myths. He notes that it is possible to view ritual and myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is a statement of the purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240). It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at the end of the passage does the Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? Essay trick. In Diverse. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into Why Choose Long Search and SEO? your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and do not acknowledge that use with a citation.
Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the purposes and methods of documentation, the major cause of unconscious plagiarism is probably lousy note taking. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is a quote, a paraphrase, or summary. You should also immediately take down all the bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into your paper. 2006 Lebanon. If you don't do this, and you need to Long Keywords Search and SEO? use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the call numbers of library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to aristotles definition look it up in the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Otherwise in a couple of weeks you may want to use it, but have only a vague notion of where it came from.
And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and get the information you need to document your use of it. Keywords And SEO?. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in the sense of seeking either to cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in a select bibliography). A reference list is less ambitious; it is an inventory of sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't. What V Board. Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.)
A reference list gives the necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for the most part, from the Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO? Essay journal American Anthropologist and Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and still more different in other disciplines. The reference list follows the text of the paper. It can be headed at the top of the page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the Why Choose Long Tail authors. Here is what an entry for on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation, a book looks like:
Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for a journal article: Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36. The above examples give the general form for definition of romanticism in literature, entering sources in a reference list. For Marketing, And SEO?. You should use the same layout and punctuation. Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Last name of author, then first name (and middle initial).
[NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. Aristotles Of Tragedy. There are about a gazillion nuances and styles; in general, use the style that is used by Why Choose Tail and SEO? Essay most of the aristotles of tragedy sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to your sources and do like they do .] 2. Date of publication. 3. Title. Long Tail For Marketing,. 4. Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the what did brown v board overturn publication. a. If a book, then the city of publication and name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the name of the Long Tail for Marketing, Search Essay periodical, volume number, and pages on arab israeli wars, which the article appears. (Note: if the Tail Keywords Search journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to duane hanson give the issue number. See point 7 below.) The above form will work for most entries.
But there are a variety of little details and special problems that you will encounter from time to time. Let's consider these one by one. 1. Book, single author. Include complete subtitles. Tonkinson, Robert. Long Keywords For Marketing,. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Dream in arab israeli wars Australia's Desert . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is Tail for Marketing, reversed.
Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. 1966 The Social Construction of Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and N.A. Barnicot. What Did Brown V Board Overturn. 1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to use the Long Tail Keywords principal author's name followed by et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the 2006 authors' names in the reference list entry.
3. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the works chronologically (by date of publication). The earliest work is Tail Keywords cited first. Bailey, F.G. Definition In Literature. 1963 Politics and Social Change . Why Choose Long Tail Keywords For Marketing,. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Oxford: Blackwell.
If more than one work was published in the same year, list them alphabetically and use lower case letters to distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. Lebanon War. City and State of Publication. If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the state, as well as the Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay city, of what case v board overturn publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Tail Keywords For Marketing, And SEO?. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Arab Israeli Wars. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Place of publication is not required for periodicals, except to Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Definition Of Romanticism In Literature. Editor or compiler.
Hunt, Robert, ed. 1967 Personalities and Cultures: Readings in Psychological Anthropology . Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in book. Williams, T.R. 1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. In Primate Socialization . Frank E. Why Choose Keywords For Marketing, Search Essay. Poirer, ed. Pp. 207-260. New York: Random House. Notice that in is underlined (or italicized in print).
This is to make sure that no one thinks it is part of the title of the book. Also, note that the name of an editor, when not in the author position, is not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the Self: An Exploration in Semiotic Anthropology. American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. Hanson. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in which case you must give the issue number in your entry. Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, continuous, provide the issue number, in parentheses, after the arab volume number. Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Why Choose Tail Keywords Search Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211.
If you read Helen Sebba's translation of a book by Roger Bastide, the complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of case did brown overturn Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Civilizations . 2006 War. Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960). All of the above information is not always available, in Long Tail Keywords Search which case you have to make do with what is available. There are also variations in definition what is done. Tail For Marketing, Search. For example, sometimes the language of the original is given: Translated from the Nahuatl by. . 9. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in Anthropology.
Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works. You should give the aristotles of tragedy original publication date in Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search brackets, if available, as well as the date of the reprint. Smith, Arthur H. And Advocacy. 1971  Village Life in China . Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in the text by both dates, at Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search, least on its first use, so the reader will be aware of the historical context of the source. Arab Israeli Wars. Your page citation should be to Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search the edition you used. Blom, Frans and what case did brown v board Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Temples . New Orleans: Tulane University Press.
Collier, Jane F. 1973 Law and Keywords Search Essay Social Change in Zinacantan . Arab. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. In Women, Culture and Society . Long Tail Keywords. M. Rosaldo and aristotles definition L. Lamphere, eds. Pp. 89-96. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1977 Political Leadership and Legal Change in Zincantan. Law and Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40.
Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . 2 vol. Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17. Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of what makes a library confusing is the fact that it has to organize tons of Long Tail for Marketing, Essay different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of in Diverse art to zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by everyone from anthropology students to zymurgists. Anthropology uses an extremely wide range of library materials.
If you go into the library blind, you won't find most of them. To use the library effectively for Essay, anthropological research, you have to know the functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and bibliographies) and duane hanson the anthropological literature. And, of Keywords and SEO? Essay course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it. Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is not simple. But with practice it becomes automatic. Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the time to learn how the library works. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good).
11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to as needed, whenever you do research in hanson the University Library, for anthropology or allied disciplines. The Library: How to Why Choose for Marketing, and SEO? Get Started. So you walk into the library. What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for case, a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is available for your topic. (See the next section for descriptions of individual reference works, including the ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to check it for feasibility. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in a reference work you then have to Why Choose Long Tail and SEO? Essay go to the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the duane hanson sculpture paper cards directly) and Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO? Essay find its call number, so that you can locate it in the stacks.
The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the sixth floor which is Essay just what you need for your paper. (It beats starting with the first book on the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the Tail and SEO? Essay one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. When you find it--or the place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf. 2006. Since they are in the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to your topic. Long Keywords For Marketing, Essay. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is war often an effective way of finding useful sources. The same type of browsing is also possible to do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? reference list to identify additional sources. These sources will lead you on to their sources, and so on--this is the method of duane hanson pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in the section on the use of citations. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of in-text citations, and may omit a reference list on the theory that the Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay information was already given in Essay on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation footnotes. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about Long and SEO? their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on that account.) Since each source can cite only earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications.
But it is also possible to pursue it in the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to later citations. This is done by means of a remarkable set of and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation reference tools called the Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to summarize the knowledge in an area. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, anthropological research. (Also see the section on more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. 30 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. There are three parts to this encyclopedia. The first is a one volume outline of knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is also a guide to the encyclopedia.
Then there is Essay and Advocacy Poupulation a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in a subject. It is Why Choose intended to function as a ready reference, and as an index to the last nineteen volumes. It doesn't give the kind of in depth information needed even for exploratory reading on a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and what case did brown overturn leads to follow. The final nineteen volumes are the Macropaedia. Long Tail Keywords Search And SEO? Essay. They give what the editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in what case did brown depth. Often the articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful.
The reference lists are good. Note: one of the distinctive features of the 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is Keywords Search Essay a splendid index to the Macropaedia. Definition Of Romanticism. It is always best to start there. The Propaedia also indexes the Macropaidia, though less obviously. Don't skip them.
International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay index volume. USE IT! It is much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in the encyclopedia proper. Aristotles. The index volume lists specific topics--going to it first saves you time.
Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology. This encyclopedia has signed articles by heavyweights in their field. For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on Culture and Personality. The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the world of general encyclopaedias, this is probably the Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? Essay index you will want to turn to first.
It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by using it have a pretty good chance of being high quality. It is easy to use. For example, suppose you are interested in Brazil. You look in of romanticism the index for 1980 under the subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, the meeting of aristotles definition anthropologists and Indian experts.
R. Cordoso de Oliveira. Why Choose Search. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the lebanon war abbreviation used in this index for Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is a list of abbreviations used in the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is 20, on pages 451-454, in June 1979. The article was written by R. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on the article itself, look up the journal name in the serials record . This is a list of the journals and magazines in the library, and gives their call numbers. Definition. The serials record is Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay found both in duane hanson sculpture print and on computer at various locations--one is near the Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay reference desk.
The serials list also tells you what volumes the library has. Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room. Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks. Armed with the aristotles call number for the journal and the volume and page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and pull out the lebanon war volume you need, flip it open, and voil?: the Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? desired article. (Remember, that if that article is useful, the sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.)
Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the contents of duane hanson books (for example, essays in collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the index for 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting. You turn to the anthropology heading.
Again nothing seems useful. Why Choose Keywords For Marketing, Search And SEO?. But it refers you (see also) to various other headings, including ethnology. Definition Of Romanticism. Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to the kinship heading, you find an article on kinship in Brazil. This is how it is listed in the index:
Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Social Structures of Central and Why Choose Keywords and SEO? Essay Eastern Brazil. In Gross, D.R., ed. Peoples and Cultures of Native South America . p. In Literature. 263-74. Why Choose Long Keywords Search. You could not have found this particular article in did brown the card catalog, but you can look up the Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed.
Under Gross, D.R., you find the following information. Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. with introductions. Published by the American Museum of Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to look up the book. The big advantage of this index is that it indexes the contents of books. The fact that an lebanon, article or essay has been selected for Tail Keywords, inclusion in a collection means that there is a fair chance that the article is of high quality.
Catalog of the Library of the v board Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. This is a reproduction in Tail Keywords for Marketing, book form, of the card catalog of the did brown v board overturn Peabody Museum Library. It is Tail and SEO? perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the what did brown overturn contents of selected journals and books. It is divided into for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay an author catalog and a subject catalog. The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the main catalog was published. 1. Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by human groups (political, linguistic, and definition of romanticism social) and by geographical areas. The human groups headings, such as Basques and Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO? Essay Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics. The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and then you look for the subject headings that interest you.
Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago. Suppose I am interested in Bali, an island in Indonesia. Under Bali in the fourth supplement to duane hanson sculpture the catalog are reproduction of thirty-one cards in the catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the eth- nology of Why Choose Search and SEO? Bali. Here are some of the arab wars subject headings that appear under the geographic heading of Long Tail Bali: Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of many books and journals.
For example, on a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in definition of romanticism a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and Oratory in Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the name of the case did brown v board overturn editor of the volume in which this work appears; it does give you page numbers. We also find a journal article on Long Keywords Essay, marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural. ( In : American Ethnologist . Arab Israeli Wars. 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the above appear in the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. Long Tail Keywords Search Essay. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in the third supplement.
You should use both the main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources. For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the following older, but classic, work: Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. xvi, 227 p. 100 illus. (Special Publications of the New York Academy of Sciences. Why Choose For Marketing, And SEO? Essay. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to duane hanson locate many older works; it is an excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of your topic.
For example, maybe you are interested in Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? some aspect of the work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians. Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on works by Kroeber, covering the Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse course of his career from 1900 through the 1950's. Why Choose Long Tail Search And SEO?. There are numerous articles on California Indians. After the wars publications by Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by Tail Search and SEO? or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to you than the original publications, so it may pay off to check the supplements even on older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index. The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the and Advocacy Poupulation versatile and Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay sophisticated index we mentioned before. 2006. It consists of three different kinds of indexes, which are designed to be used together: the Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the time it takes to get acquainted with it. 1. Wars. Subject and Source Index.
If you have a topic, and want to find articles about it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Tail For Marketing, Search And SEO? Essay. Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the words in the title, which are called terms and co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of psychological anthropology. You know that culture and arab personality studies are an important part of this field. So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and personality as a Co-Term. In the Why Choose Tail Keywords and SEO? Permuterm Subject Index for 1980, under the primary term culture and the co-term personality the name Shweder is arab israeli listed.
Now you turn to the Source Index for 1980 and look up Shweder. This turns out to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. (There was even a little symbol in the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the following information for aristotles of tragedy, the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A. Rethinking Culture and Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of two more Classical Postulates. This is basically the same bibliographic information you find in a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and date of publication. Only the order is Why Choose Long Tail and SEO? Essay different from the format given earlier. The only mystery here is the wars 77R. That indicates the Long and SEO? number of sources that Shweder cites. Case Did Brown Overturn. Seventy-seven sources is a lot. When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay a subject. The article by Shweder is probably a review of 2006 lebanon some aspect of culture and personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else.
One beautiful thing about the SSCI is that in Why Choose Keywords Search Essay the Source Index it lists the reference sources of every article indexed. So you not only have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of all the sources he cited, even before you go look at duane hanson, his article. His reference list is given right below the for Marketing, and SEO? Essay entry for his article. Let's look at one of Shweder's sources, as listed in 2006 war the Source Index. Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. Long Tail Keywords Essay. 67 means 1967. The name of the journal in overturn which the article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? others. Aristotles Of Tragedy. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on culture and personality, for example, are probably writing about the same or related issues. Why Choose Long Tail Search And SEO? Essay. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an evaluation of Shweder's work.
So by using the Citation Index , you can listen in to duane sculpture the dialogues being carried on by various groups of scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by finding out who has cited that article (or author) since its publication. The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Before, you could only trace sources cited in Tail Keywords an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of publication of the article you have. But with the israeli Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. So not only can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by using the SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and ideas in a field, and check to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Essay see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of library research is lebanon likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one. Here's how you go about using the SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the author in the index. The titles of the author's articles are listed, by year of publication, under his or her name. Under the Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay titles are listed the names of the authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources.
Book Review Digest. Suppose you want to know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by Meyer Fortes and what case did brown E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in your paper. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, And SEO? Essay. You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in the author/title index which is published in separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). This provides the title and year of case did brown overturn publication of all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941. Turning to Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? Essay the volume for 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from of romanticism several reviews of this book which appeared in Why Choose Long Keywords various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and American Political Science Review . If a book is not reviewed by a major journal, it may not be worth using. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and it is embarrassing to base part of a term paper on a book which seems to be scholarly and rigorous, only to definition of romanticism in literature have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the author is famous for being an Why Choose Keywords, idiot.
Therefore any book which seems to contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . If you find no summaries there, be sure to check the Book Review Index . Here you can find the citations to definition of tragedy a much larger number of Keywords and SEO? Essay book reviews but without summaries. You will have to look them up yourself. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the bulk of its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in over the next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the book was published. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and definition of romanticism national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to Why Choose do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of writing is intensively indexed by topic.
Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals: Outline of Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files. Assigns a numerical designation to more than 700 categories of case did brown human culture. It is used in conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in preparation for a research paper. And remember that indexes and bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on Search and SEO?, particular subjects (such as culture and personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is not an on Counseling Poupulation, exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research. I have tried here to list only the ones you will probably find most useful.
There are many other useful reference sources. Why Choose Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search And SEO? Essay. Try browsing in the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of available reference works. Lebanon War. 13 There is Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? a list available in the reference area devoted just to reference works in anthropology, and there are similar lists for of romanticism, other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources . 1991. Guide to reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and organizations. Introduction to Library Research in Anthropology . 1991. Guide to research tools, library services and the mechanics of term paper writing in Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to Selected Sources.
1989. Consult the Anthropology chapter for an annotated list of recent reference sources in anthropology. Sources of Information in the Social Sciences . 3rd ed. 1986. The Anthropology chapter contains an what did brown v board, exhaustive annotated bibliography of the literature of this field. [probably] Available at for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an wars, author-subject index at the back of each volume. Why Choose Tail For Marketing,. It breaks the discipline into sub-areas in Essay Poupulation a clasification scheme-- for for Marketing, Search and SEO?, example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and arab wars inter-ethnic relations). The IBSS also includes bibliographies in political science, economics, and sociology. The anthropology part covers archeology and physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of Anthropology . 1986.
Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and biographical profiles in social and cultural anthropology. Includes bibliography. Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search And SEO?. Contains definitions, historical origins and arab developments, and bibliographic references for Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO?, 80 key concepts in cultural anthropology. Dictionary of israeli wars Concepts in Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and sources of additional information for concepts in physical anthropology.
Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is really a dictionary rather than an Why Choose for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for definition of romanticism, its Origins . 1990. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and Long Keywords its impact on society, from Bonzo to biogenetic law and from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of on Counseling Poupulation Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of Why Choose for Marketing, and SEO? Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of of romanticism Human Evolution and Prehistory . 1988.
Covers 1200+ topics in human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies. Encyclopedia of World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991. Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to 1920. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of arab Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the Long and SEO? index volume.
The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences would also be useful in doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about definition in literature each individual. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS. Abstracts in Anthropology . 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the contents of a publication and index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative.
Most social sciences have their own abstracts. You may also find Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts useful. Divided into Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . 1984 - . Essay. Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by region and Why Choose Keywords Search Essay country, following a general section. Consult the social and cultural anthropology/sociology and anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . 1970 - . Index to alternative and radical publications. Consult this index for articles on 2006 lebanon war, Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and Life . 1964 - . Table This work indexes and abstracts periodical articles in the field of North American history and culture. Includes articles on native American history, prehistory and culture.
Includes book reviews. Anthropological Index to Current Periodicals in the Museum of Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO? Essay Mankind Library . 1980 - . Indexes more than 600 periodicals in a geographical arrangement, subdivided by general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Duane Sculpture. Annual author index published separately. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Periodical Articles and Essays . 1979 - . Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at lebanon, Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . Why Choose Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search. 1987 - . Index to journal articles in the applied social sciences.
Includes social and aristotles cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical anthropology. Index Arts and Humanities Citation Index . Tail Search Essay. 1975 - . Table Provides author, subject and citation access to the literature in 2006 lebanon folklore, linguistics and archaeology. Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . 1989 - . Why Choose Tail Keywords For Marketing, Essay. Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement. Handbook of Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on humanities and social sciences. Annotated. Handbook of Middle American Indians . 16 vols.
1964-1976. Contains essays on the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the Indians of hanson sculpture Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of North American Indians . 20 vols. [in progress] 1978 - . When completed, this work will be the Why Choose Long for Marketing, and SEO? standard source of information on the prehistory, history and cultures of the native peoples of North America north of Mexico. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of Native American life with an extensive bibliography and detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . What V Board. 1973. Surveys the state of knowledge and reviews research in the various branches of anthropology. Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. 1946-1959. Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on the European contact period.
Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and Method . 1990. Why Choose Long Keywords For Marketing, Search. Presents the state of the art in medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation human populations, methodology and policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . 1981. Extensive list of bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Contains 700 entries on anthropological fieldwork from the early twentieth century to 1986. Includes geographical and on Counseling subject indexes. A Bibliography of Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search Partially Annotated with Study Guide . 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of definition development, culture and Why Choose Long for Marketing, personality.
Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . Sculpture. 1973 This is a reproduction of the author and subject catalog of the IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas. It has a table of contents. The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . 1941- These are two titles in the same continuous series. Broken down by Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? topic and Essay in Diverse country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology . 1986.
Contains 2340 references from ancient times to on the history of Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search physical anthropology. Essay On Counseling And Advocacy In Diverse Poupulation. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America . 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by areas. It has 40,000 entries on Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay, articles and of romanticism in literature books, and covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index.
The History of Why Choose Tail Keywords Search and SEO? Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977. Contains more than 2400 entries on the development of war anthropology as a science and profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of Articles in Periodicals and Long Tail Keywords and SEO? Other Collective Publications . 1958-85. Organized by definition of tragedy subject and by area. Includes section on ethnology and anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically) Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988.
Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by culture area. Contains author and subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to Why Choose Tail Search and SEO? Essay the Native Peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . 1965. 2nd ed.
This has author, subject, and group indexes. The Social System and Culture of Modern India: A Research Bibliography . 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and social and cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to sociology. YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . 1972- This gives critical reviews of recent research in selected areas of anthropology, such as political and duane sculpture economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. The biblio- graphies for each article are generally quite extensive. Reviews in Anthropology . 1974 - . Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in anthropology. Atlas of Keywords Search and SEO? Essay Mankind . 1982. Duane Sculpture. Contains general background information on peoples of the world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and environment. Atlas of World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to Ethnographic Literature . 1989.
Geographical guide to ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of Why Choose Long and SEO? China . 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of China, with maps, photographs, tables and text. There are similar volumes on Africa and lebanon war Japan. AAA Guide . Current year. Describes anthropology departments in Why Choose Tail for Marketing, 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and hanson student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and published sources of biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the and SEO? Essay library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an israeli wars, online catalog, you still need to get them--with some nifty exceptions!). Long Search. This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to cover the topic in as much detail as the 2006 lebanon war rest of this document; it merely points out a couple of things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to be where most students begin their online research; this is a great resource and has an easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only covers BOOKS. Now, at Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO?, first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for books, so like what's the limitation line all about?
It's about periodicals . Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to which journal, which is useful, but now what? To find an article on a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to the system, and the rate of change is increasing.
Much of the following is based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is what case overturn still available); resources today are vastly greater. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library (http://www.dbs.cdlib.org/. Long Keywords For Marketing, Search Essay. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. Duane Hanson. If you are looking for a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is start with Current Contents. Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for many journals you can read/download the entire article online!
Save yourself that trip over to Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? BioMed or SIO. DO skim through the 2006 lebanon war rest of this, though; the Why Choose Long Search exact commands and hanson interfaces change, but the Long Keywords search strategies do not. Instead, use MELVYL and get into of romanticism in literature one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is a little different in Why Choose Keywords Essay each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by duane hanson a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in the title. For example, say you found an Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing,, interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in 1980, and you want to see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and you'll get a list. Or, you need to write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and of romanticism you've no idea where to find anything on it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay books on hominids etc, but 99.9% of that will say nothing about did brown v board anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. Why Choose Tail Search Essay. So -- ask CC to find all articles with anamensis in the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Arab Israeli. Note that this will miss an Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO?, article about anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the fossil, you can do an author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is arab wars more specialized to journals that carry articles related in some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? medical topics). Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ).
OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and 2006 lebanon war magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to from 2-8 (supposed) experts on the topic, who tear it apart and let the editor know if there is Long Keywords Search Essay any merit to the article. For a magazine article, the definition editor decides whether to Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO? Essay accept it on the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about war it. (The same can apply for books.) This doesn't mean everything in peer-reviewed journals is true and correct, but it's at Long for Marketing, Search and SEO?, least plausible, most of the hanson sculpture time. Finally, a nifty feature of MED and MAGS is that for some articles you can access the Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay abstract and (in MAGS), sometimes even the whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like: 3. Evans, Dylan. The arbitrary ape. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly)
New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in Stacks. which is pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the relevant bit, the display won't be in color!). This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to attempt to cover research on the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines, and remember: at did brown overturn, least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on the web. Second, while the Why Choose Long Tail Keywords web has everything on it, you may not be able to definition of romanticism find it.
I recently wanted statistics on Why Choose Tail Search, timber exports from Gabon, and duane hanson figured it was a natural for a web search. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay within 3 minutes had the aristotles of tragedy call number of a recent book on African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for and more on the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to emailing me with a couple of urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to find it. ) No single search strategy will get everything, and failure to find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to for Marketing, Search the body of published material on some subject or topic--not to Russian novels. For example, there is a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on the kinship systems of Australian Aborigines, on witchcraft and arab israeli magic and so forth. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in the world at large, of course. One of the practical aspects of anthropology courses is their frequent emphasis on writing.
You will find the writing and Keywords for Marketing, Search research skills as taught in anthropology useful in the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. back. 3 Data are pieces of information that can be used in analysis. Technically, data is the arab israeli plural of datum, that is, of Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, one of the pieces of information. But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of illiteracy. So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on word usage and words commonly misused. back. 4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of wrongheadedness in the first sentence of almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is definition probably an awful lot of poor word choice going on.
If you are careful to pick the best words for the ideas you want to Tail for Marketing, Search express, you will probably be one of the few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to a little disagreement. Definition Of Tragedy. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for Tail Search, disagreeing, after all, and if it is a good reason it might work into the basis of case a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the exposition or argument of the Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search Essay paper. This type of footnote is for discussion and lebanon war elaboration. Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back.
8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to include everything necessary for someone else to be able to Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? use them. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for all practical purposes you will be someone else. Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. And Advocacy Poupulation. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on past work.back.
13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about Why Choose Tail Essay how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in Essay on Counseling and Advocacy primatology/cognitive science these days is for Marketing, Search and SEO? theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of thinking about other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to stimuli without being able to israeli wars take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the Sally - Anne test. Long Search. Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is watching, then Sally leaves the room (the experimental subject is watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for something nasty, then leaves. Sally returns. Now: ask the subject What does Sally think is in the box?
Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and that of Sally. Older humans have TOM and know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Monkeys don't seem to ever get it, and people argue about apes. The interesting thing to me is Essay and Advocacy Poupulation that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the reader is another person, who may or may not know all the things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in the same way you have. You need to develop logic, present data, explain ideas.
If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and capable of employing TOM. Do it on papers (and in seminar presentations. ) and Why Choose Long Tail you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience. For further Moore's meanderings on the topic of research papers (including a set of classic errors in paper types), click here for the Research Paper handout (in a new window).
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adrienne rich essays Adrienne Rich: Online Essays and Letters. Recently I collected a number of my prose writings for a forthcoming volume. Rereading them, it struck me that for some readers, the earlier pieces might seem to belong to a bygone era--20 to 30 years ago. I chose to include them as background, indicating certain directions in my thinking. A burgeoning women's movement in the 1970s and early 1980s incited and provided the occasions for them, created their ecology.
But, as I suggested in Notes Toward a Politics of Location, my thinking was unable to fulfill itself within feminism alone. Our senses are currently whip-driven by a feverish new pace of technological change. The activities that mark us as human, though, don't begin, exist in, or end by such a calculus. They pulse, fade out, and pulse again in human tissue, human nerves, and in the elemental humus of memory, dreams, and art, where there are no bygone eras. They are in us, they can speak to us, they can teach us if we desire it. In fact, for Westerners to look back on 1900 is to come full face upon ourselves in 2000, still trying to grapple with the hectic power of capitalism and technology, the displacement of the social will into Long Tail Keywords Search Essay, the accumulation of money and things. Thus (Karl Marx in 1844) all physical and intellectual senses (are) replaced by the simple alienation of all these senses, the sense of having. War! We have been here all along.
But retrospection can also remind us how one period's necessary strategies can mutate into the monsters of Tail Search Essay a later time. What Did Brown V Board Overturn! The accurate feminist perceptions that women's lives, historically or individually, were mostly unrecorded and that the personal is political are cases in point. Long Keywords For Marketing, Search! Feminism has depended heavily on the concrete testimony of individual women, a testimony that was meant to war accumulate toward collective understanding and practice. In When We Dead Awaken, I borrowed my title from Ibsen's last play, written in 1900. Certainly the Long Keywords for Marketing, Search, issues Ibsen had dramatized were very much alive. I used myself to illustrate a woman writer's journey, rather tentatively.
In 1971 this still seemed a questionable, even illegitimate, approach, especially in a paper to on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation be given at an academic convention. Soon thereafter, personal narrative was becoming valued as the true coin of feminist expression. At the Tail Keywords Search Essay, same time, in every zone of public life, personal and private solutions were being marketed by a profit-driven corporate system, while collective action and even collective realities were mocked at definition best and at worst rendered historically sterile. Long Keywords Search And SEO? Essay! By the late 1990s, in mainstream American public discourse, personal anecdote was replacing critical argument, true confessions were foregrounding the discussion of ideas. A feminism that sought to engage race and colonialism, the global monoculture of United States corporate and military interests, the specific locations and agencies of women within all this was being countered by duane, the marketing of Tail for Marketing, a United States model of female--or feminine--self-involvement and of tragedy self-improvement, devoid of Long Tail Search and SEO? political context or content. Still, those early essays suggest the terrain where I started: a time of imaginative and intellectual ferment, when many kinds of transformations seemed possible.
Women and Honor belongs to a period when there was in the air a theoretical code of ethical responsibility among women: a precarious solidarity of gender. Within that ethic--which I shared--I was trying to criticize the aristotles definition of tragedy, deceptions we practiced on each other and Tail and SEO? ourselves. Published at a time of vigorous feminist small-press pamphleteering, Women and Honor seemed, for a while, usable. Today, the 2006 war, parts that most interest me are the Long Tail Keywords Search, descriptions of how lying can disrupt the internal balance of the one who accepts the lebanon war, lie, and the difficulties of constructing an honorable life. I believe these stretch beyond gender to other hoped-for pacts, comradeships, and conversations, including those between the Why Choose Long and SEO?, citizen and her government. (I do not believe that truth-telling exists in a bubble, sealed off from the desire for justice.) Looking back on her own earlier writings, Susan Sontag has remarked: Now the very idea of the serious (and the hanson, honorable) seems quaint, 'unrealistic,' to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, most people. Of Romanticism In Literature! Like other serious and Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay vibrant movements, feminism was to be countered by cultural patterns unforeseen before the 1980s: a growing middle-class self-absorption and indifference both to ideas and to the larger social order, along with the compression of media power and war resources into fewer and Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay fewer hands, during and beyond the Reagan years. It interests me that in Women and duane hanson sculpture Honor, that poetically terse piece of Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? writing, I first invoked the name of Marx--to dismiss Marxism for women. I was of course echoing the definition of romanticism, standard anti-Marxism of the postwar American cultural and political mainstream. But, as I indicate in Raya Dunayevskaya's Marx, written more than a decade later, this anti-Marxism, uncriticized and uninvestigated, was present also in Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO?, the women's movement. Marxism was tainted there, both by garden-variety anticommunism and by the fear that class would erase gender once again, when gender was just beginning to wars be understood as a political category.
Sometime around 1980 I felt impelled to go back and read what I had dismissed or felt threatened by: I had to find out what Marx, along the way of his own development, had actually written. I began working my way through those writings, in the assorted translations and editions available to Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay me, an what did brown overturn autodidact and an outsider, not an academic or post-Marx Marxist. There were passages that whetted my hunger; others I traversed laboriously and in Long Tail Search Essay, intellectual fatigue. I understood that I was sometimes overhearing early 19th-century German philosophical diatribes I could just as well skip. What kept me going was the sense of being in the company of a great geographer of the human condition, and specifically, a sense of recognition: how profit-driven economic relations filter into zones of thought and feeling. Marx's depiction of early 19th-century capitalism and its dehumanizing effect on the social landscape rang truer than ever at and Advocacy the century's end. Along with that flare of recognition came profound respect and empathy for Marx's restless vision of human capacities and the nature of their frustration. I found no blueprint for a future utopia but a skilled diagnosis of skewed and disfigured human relationships. I found a Marx who would have been revolted by Why Choose, Stalinism, by the expropriation of his ideas in the name of 2006 lebanon tyranny, by the expropriation of his name: I am not a Marxist, he said. Why Choose! In the aristotles of tragedy, feminism I had embraced, as in the social field where it was rooted, there was a salient dialectic: racism as destructive presence, race as great social teacher.
Time and again racial actualities pushed against the primary oppression of gender; time and again the lesson was forgotten. I came to realize that we were afraid: that a focus on class (read Marxism) might blot out a focus on gender and race; that gender (feminism) might blot out race and class; that you could look at history and see the big eraser wiping out each successive lesson of justice, so that collective knowledge could not accumulate. For the pressing motif of this excessive society was and is: There is not enough (space, livelihood, validation) for all. I'm not sure that I could have read Marx with so much patience and appetite had I not participated in the inevitable shortcomings of the feminist movement in the United States. Why Choose Long And SEO? Essay! Though some feminists (mostly women of color) insisted on intersections of race, class, and gender, emphasis was more often laid on arab israeli wars women's individual class identifications and how they negotiated them, or on poverty and welfare, than on how class, poverty and the need for welfare are produced and perpetuated in the first place. (Both kinds of work, of course, are necessary.) Elsewhere, movement was being parochialized into women's culture. Meanwhile, the expansion of capitalism's force field, the impoverishment of women within it, and the steep concentration of wealth were all brutally accelerating. We can think of second-wave feminism as a splinter off the radical movements of United States history, especially the Depression-driven movements of the Why Choose Search and SEO? Essay, 1930s and 1940s, movements always under fire, repressed in the 1950s, resurgent in of romanticism, new forms in the 1960s, and by the 1970s, again being deliberately defused and isolated. Above all, the political groupings of African Americans were under hostile surveillance. Earlier, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr.--both leaders with large constituencies--had been murdered just as each was unscrolling a map on which race and class intersected in a shared landscape. The blotting of those maps was accomplished by violence, persecution, censorship and Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? propaganda.
The energy, hopefulness, brains and passion of a women's movement erupting in the United States at such a time was no match for these political circumstances. The important legacies of that movement reside not in of romanticism, the names of a few women starring in the media, but in the many lifesaving, stubbornly ongoing grass-roots organizations it had the power to ignite. I still believe what I wrote in Long Tail for Marketing, Search, 1971: A change in the concept of sexual identity is essential if we are not to see the what case did brown v board, old political order reassert itself in Why Choose Long Tail Search Essay, every new revolution. Case V Board! What prose I wrote in the 1990s was fired by a hope of bringing together ideas that had been forcibly severed from each other or thrown into competition: such as the making of literature and Why Choose Long Essay public education. Arab! Sometimes I felt ideas that attracted me mutually repelling each other.
Or I felt the Tail Keywords, shortcomings of my own language pitted against a lethargic liberalism or a despicable rhetoric of spin. What! Sometimes it all seemed mere Sisyphean effort, pushing uphill and futureless a rock bearing sweaty handprints of so many others. Tail And SEO?! But Sisyphus is Essay not, finally, a useful image. You don't roll some unitary boulder of language or justice uphill; you try with others to assist in Why Choose Long Keywords and SEO? Essay, cutting and laying many stones, designing a foundation. What Case V Board! One of the stonecutter-architects I met was Muriel Rukeyser, whose work I had begun reading in depth in the 1980s. Through her prose Rukeyser had engaged me intellectually; her poetry, however, in its range and daring, held me first and last. Her Vision is a tribute to the mentorship of her work. Why Choose Long Keywords! Another was Raya Dunayevskaya, who wrote vividly and trenchantly of the concrete revolutionary lives of women, and whose fusion of Marx's humanism with contemporary feminisms expanded my sense of the possibilities of both.
I was also undertaking a kind of arab israeli wars research into poetics, both as writing and as reading. I had always worked fairly instinctually and independently as a poet, distrusting groups and manifestos, which I found mostly unuseful in their exclusive male compadreship; I trusted their poetry more than their bondings. (I have had to reckon in and out of Keywords for Marketing, Essay gender to definition in literature do my work.) But it seemed to me that an accumulating incoherence and disruption of Keywords and SEO? public language and images in the late 20th century was something poets had to reckon with, not just for our own work. I had explored this challenge in my 1993 book, What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics. I was looking for poetics and practice that could resist degraded media and a mass entertainment culture, both of them much more pervasive and powerful than earlier in the century. There was nothing new about this; artists have long made art against the commodity culture.
And innovative or transgressive art has itself been commodified, yet has dialectically frictioned new forms and imaginings into existence. One of the questions that pursued me is whether, and how, innovative or so-called avant-garde poetics are necessarily or even potentially revolutionary: Do they simply embrace a language so deracinated that it is privy in its rebellions only to a few? The question is what did brown not unreasonable given the decidedly antibourgeois, anticonformist claims of Why Choose Keywords Search and SEO? Essay avant-garde tradition. The obverse question is inescapable: Can a radical social imagination clothe itself in a language worn thin by usage or debased by aristotles, marketing, promotion and Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? the will to power? In order to meet that will to of romanticism power, must we choose between the nonreferential and the paraphrasable? I believe in the necessity for a poetic language untethered from the compromised language of state and media. Long Keywords For Marketing, And SEO? Essay! Yet how, I have wondered, can poetry persist as a ligatory art rather than as an echo chamber of fragmentation and alienation? Can the language of what did brown v board overturn poetry become too abstract (some might say elitist) even as it tries to Why Choose Long Search claim what Octavio Paz has called the other voice?
Is there a way of writing on the edge? Of course I think there is, and has been; I test my own work from that likelihood. Language, I find in Marx, is the presence of the community. In Literature! In a 1979 essay by Gary Snyder: The community and its poetry are not two. Are writers, poets, artists, thinking people still merely gnashing away at the problems of the early 20th century? But this is not mere. These primal, unsilenced questions pursue us, wherever we are trying to live conscientiously in the time we have.
A new century, even a new technology, doesn't of itself produce newness. It is Keywords Search and SEO? Essay live human beings, looking in all directions, who will do this. Israeli Wars! For more than 50 years I have been writing, tearing, up, revising poems, studying poets from Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay every culture and century available to me. I have been a poet of the oppositional imagination, meaning that I don't think my only argument is definition with myself. My work is for Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay people who want to imagine and claim wider horizons and carry on about them into the night, rather than rehearse the landlocked details of personal quandaries or the price for which the house next door just sold. At times in the past decade and hanson sculpture a half I have felt like a stranger in my own country. I seem not to Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? speak the official language. I believe many others feel like this, not just as poets or intellectuals but as citizens--accountable yet excluded from power. I began as an American optimist, albeit a critical one, formed by our racial legacy and by the Vietnam War.
In both these cases it was necessary to look hard truths in the face in order to change horrible realities. I believed, with many others, that my country's historical aquifers were flowing in that direction of democratic change. I became an American skeptic, not as to the long search for justice and aristotles of tragedy dignity, which is part of all human history, but in the light of my nation's leading role in Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO?, demoralizing and arab wars destabilizing that search, here at home and around the Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search, world. Perhaps just such a passionate skepticism, neither cynical nor nihilistic, is the ground for aristotles of tragedy continuing. Copyright 2001 Los Angeles Times . Online Source.
Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts Los Angeles Times Book Section -- August 3, 1997. Note: Adrienne Rich's recent refusal of the National Medal for the Arts puzzled many people. The debate over Long Tail, the proper relations between the state and the artist, between the realms of the public and the private, continues unabated. Of Tragedy! Book Review invited Rich to explain why she refused the Tail and SEO? Essay, presidential honor. The invitation from the White House came by telephone on July 3, just before the national holiday, a time of public contention about the relationship of government to the arts. After several years' erosion of arts funding and hostile propaganda from the religious right and the Republican Congress, the House vote to what case did brown v board end the National Endowment for the Arts was looming. That vote would break as news on July 10; my refusal of the National Medal for the Arts would run as a sidebar story in the New York Times and the San Francisco Chronicle. In fact, I was unaware of the timing. My no came directly out of my work as a poet and essayist and citizen drawn to the interfold of personal and Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search Essay public experience. I had recently been thinking and writing about the growing fragmentation of the 2006, social compact, of whatever it was this country had ever meant when it called itself a democracy: the shredding of the vision of government of the Why Choose Long Search Essay, people, by the people, for the people. Of Romanticism! We the Long for Marketing, Search Essay, people--still an excellent phrase, said the prize-winning playwright Lorraine Hansberry in Essay Poupulation, 1962, well aware who had been excluded, yet believing the Why Choose for Marketing,, phrase might someday come to embrace us all.
And I had for years been feeling both personal and war public grief, fear, hunger and the need to render this, my time, in the language of my art. Whatever was newsworthy about my refusal was not about Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search a single individual--not myself, not President Clinton. Nor was it about a single political party. Both major parties have displayed a crude affinity for the interests of corporate power while deserting the majority of the on Counseling and Advocacy, people, especially the most vulnerable. Why Choose Keywords Search! Like so many others, I've watched the dismantling of israeli wars our public education, the steep rise in our incarceration rates, the demonization of our young black men, the accusations against our teenage mothers, the selling of health care--public and private--to the highest bidders, the export of subsistence-level jobs in the United States to even lower-wage countries, the use of below-minimum-wage prison labor to break strikes and raise profits, the scapegoating of Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? immigrants, the Essay on Counseling Poupulation, denial of dignity and minimal security to our working and poor people.
At the same time, we've witnessed the acquisition of publishing houses, once risk-taking conduits of creativity, by conglomerates driven single-mindedly to fast profits, the Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay, acquisition of major communications and media by those same interests, the sacrifice of the arts and public libraries in Essay and Advocacy, stripped-down school and civic budgets and, most recently, the evisceration of the National Endowment for the Arts. Piece by piece the democratic process has been losing ground to the accumulation of private wealth. There is no political leadership in the White House or the Congress that has spoken to and for the people who, in a very real sense, have felt abandoned by their government. Hansberry spoke her words about government during the Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, Cuban missile crisis, at a public meeting in definition, New York to abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee. She also said in that speech, My government is Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? wrong. She did not say, I abhor all government. She claimed her government as a citizen, African American and female, and she challenged it. (I listened to her words again, on an old vinyl recording, this past Fourth of July.) In a similar spirit, many of us today might wish to hold government accountable, challenge the agendas of private power and wealth that have displaced historical tendencies toward genuinely representative government in the United States. We might still wish to definition in literature claim our government, to say, This belongs to us--we, the people, as we are now. We would have to start asking questions that have been defined as non-questions--or as naive, childish questions.
In the recen official White House focus on race, it goes consistently unsaid that the Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search, all-embracing enterprise of on Counseling and Advocacy our early history was the slave trade, which left nothing, no single life, untouched and was, along with the genocide of the native population and Why Choose Tail Search Essay the seizure of their lands, the foundation of our national prosperity and power. Promote dialogues on aristotles race? Apologize for slavery? We would need to perform an autopsy on capitalism itself. Marxism has been declared dead. Yet the questions Marx raised are still alive and pulsing, however the Tail for Marketing, Search Essay, language and duane the labels have been co-opted and abused. What is Why Choose social wealth?
How do the conditions of 2006 lebanon human labor infiltrate other social relationships? What would it require for Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Essay people to live and work together in conditions of v board radical equality? How much inequality will we tolerate in the world's richest and most powerful nation? Why and how have these and similar questions become discredited in Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search, public discourse? And what about art? Mistrusted, adored, pietized, condemned, dismissed as entertainment, auctioned at Sotheby's, purchased by investment-seeking celebrities, it dies into the art object of a thousand museum basements. Hanson! It's also reborn hourly in Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search, prisons, women's shelters, small-town garages, community college workshops, halfway houses--wherever someone picks up a pencil, a wood-burning tool, a copy of The Tempest, a tag-sale camera, a whittling knife, a stick of charcoal, a pawnshop horn, a video of Citizen Kane, whatever lets you know again that this deeply instinctual yet self-conscious expressive language, this regenerative process, could help you save your life. If there were no poetry on aristotles definition of tragedy any day in the world, the poet Muriel Rukeyser wrote, poetry would be invented that day.
For there would be an intolerable hunger. For Marketing, Search Essay! In an essay on of romanticism the Caribbean poet Aime Cesaire, Clayton Eshleman names this hunger as the desire, the need, for a more profound and ensouled world. There is a continuing dynamic between art repressed and art reborn, between the relentless marketing of the superficial and the spectral and vivid reality that employs all means (Rukeyser again) to Tail Keywords reach through armoring, resistances, resignation, to recall us to duane hanson sculpture desire. Art is both tough and fragile. It speaks of what we long to hear and what we dread to Long Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay find. Its source and native impulse, the imagination, may be shackled in early life, yet may find release in conditions offering little else to the spirit.
For a recent document on this, look at 2006 lebanon Phyllis Kornfeld's Cellblock Visions: Prison Art in America, notable for the variety and emotional depth of the artworks reproduced, the words of the inmate artists and for Kornfeld's unsentimental and Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay lucid text. Having taught art to inmates for 14 years in 18 institutions (including maximum security units), she sees recent incarceration policy overall as rapidly devolving from lebanon rehabilitation to dehumanization, including the dismantling of prison arts programs. Art can never be totally legislated by any system, even those that reward obedience and Long Tail for Marketing, Search send dissident artists to hard labor and death; nor can it, in 2006 lebanon, our specifically compromised system, be really free. It may push up through cracked macadam, by the merest means, but it needs breathing space, cultivation, protection to fulfill itself. Why Choose Keywords For Marketing, Search Essay! Just as people do. New artists, young or old, need education in their art, the tools of their craft, chances to study examples from the aristotles, past and meet practitioners in the present, get the criticism and encouragement of mentors, learn that they are not alone. As the socialcompact withers, fewer and fewer people will be told, yes, you can do this, this also belongs to you. Like government, art needs the Why Choose Tail Keywords and SEO?, participation of the and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, many in Why Choose for Marketing, Search Essay, order not to become the property of a powerful and narrowly self-interested minority.
Art is our human birthright, our most powerful means of Poupulation access to our own and another's experience and imaginative life. In continually rediscovering and recovering the humanity of human beings, art is crucial to the democratic vision. A government tending further and Why Choose Long and SEO? Essay further away from the search for definition democracy will see less and less use in encouraging artists, will see art as obscenity or hoax. In 1987, the Tail Keywords Search and SEO? Essay, late Justice William Brennan spoke of arab israeli formal reason severed from the Why Choose Long and SEO? Essay, insights of passion as a major threat to due-process principles. Due process asks whether government has treated someone fairly, whether individual dignity has been honored, whether the worth of an individual has been acknowledged. Officials cannot always silence these questions by pointing to rational action taken according to standard rules.
They must plumb their conduct more deeply, seeking answers in the more complex equations of arab israeli wars human nature and experience. It is Why Choose Long and SEO? Essay precisely where fear and hatred of art join the pull toward quantification and abstraction, where the human face is mechanically deleted, that human dignity disappears from the social equation. Because it is to those complex equations of human nature and experience that art addresses itself. In a society tyrannized by the accumulation of wealth as Eastern Europe was tyrannized by its own false gods of concentrated power, recognized artists have, perhaps, a new opportunity to work out our connectedness, as artists, with other people who are beleaguered, suffering, disenfranchised--precariously employed workers, trashed elders, throwaway youth, the unsuccessful and the art they too are nonetheless making and definition seeking. I wish I didn't feel the necessity to say here that none of this is about imposing ideology or style or content on artists; it is about the inseparability of Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay art from acute social crisis in this century and the one now coming up. We have a short-lived model in our history for the place of art in relation to government. During the Depression of the 1930s, under New Deal legislation, thousands of creative and performing artists were paid modest stipends to work in the Federal Writers Project, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Art Project. Their creativity, in the form of novels, murals, plays, performances, public monuments, the providing of music and theater to arab israeli new audiences, seeded the art and the consciousness of succeeding decades. Keywords And SEO? Essay! By 1939, this funding was discontinued. Duane Hanson! Federal funding for Why Choose Long for Marketing, Essay the arts, like the philanthropy of private arts patrons, can be given and of tragedy taken away.
In the long run, art need to grow organically out of a social compost nourishing to everyone, a literate citizenry, a free, universal, public education complex with art as an integral element, a society without throwaway people, honoring both human individuality and the search for a decent, sustainable common life. In such conditions, art would still be a voice of Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Essay hunger, desire, discontent, passion, reminding us that the democratic project is never-ending. For that to happen, what else would have to change? I hope the discussion will continue. Did Brown V Board Overturn! The National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington 20506. Dear Jane Alexander, I just spoke with a young man from your office, who informed me that I had been chosen to Why Choose Tail and SEO? Essay be one of twelve recipients of the definition of romanticism, National Medal for the Arts at a ceremony at the White House in the fall. I told him at once that I could not accept such an award from President Clinton or this White House because the very meaning of art, as I understand it, is incompatible with the cynical politics of this administration. Why Choose Tail Keywords! I want to clarify to you what I meant by what case v board, my refusal.
Anyone familiar with my work from the early Sixties on knows that I believe in art's social presence--as breaker of official silences, as voice for those whose voices are disregarded, and and SEO? Essay as a human birthright. In my lifetime I have seen the space for the arts opened by movements for social justice, the power of did brown v board art to break despair. Over the past two decades I have witnessed the increasingly brutal impact of racial and economic injustice in our country. There is no simple formula for Long Tail for Marketing, and SEO? the relationship of art to justice. But I do know that art--in my own case the art of poetry--means nothing if it simply decorates the dinner table of power which holds it hostage.
The radical disparities of wealth and power in America are widening at case did brown v board overturn a devastating rate. Long Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search! A President cannot meaningfully honor certain token artists while the people at large are so dishonored. I know you have been engaged in a serious and disheartening struggle to save government funding for the arts, against those whose fear and suspicion of art is nakedly repressive. In the end, I don't think we can separate art from overall human dignity and hope. My concern for 2006 my country is inextricable from my concerns as an artist. I could not participate in a ritual which would feel so hypocritical to me. cc: President Clinton. Defy the Space That Separates from The Nation (Oct. 7, 1996) I never expected to edit a contemporary poetry anthology. When David Lehman, the series editor for Best American Poetry , asked me to Long Search and SEO? Essay undertake a volume, I was dubious -- about the title and its implications, about the on Counseling Poupulation, catchment area I could possibly hope to survey, about the usefulness of the project, not only for me but for poetry itself. Who would read it, how would it serve? My decision finally rested on Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? Lehman's guarantee of complete editorial independence, which he honored throughout the selection process.
And so The Best American Poetry 1996 belies its title. And Advocacy In Diverse Poupulation! From the first I pushed aside the designations best and American (surely in the many Americas there are many poetries). Rather, I visualized a gathering of poems that one editor, reading through mailboxesful of journals that publish poetry, found especially urgent, lively, haunting, resonant, demanding to be reread. By temperament, experience and lifework I've been drawn over the past six decades to many kinds of poetry, not always comparable to one another; toward certain kinds of claims for poetry. These inclinations are without doubt reflected in my choices. Long Tail And SEO? Essay! But also reflected in this collection -- both by what's here and by what is not -- are the circumstances of North America (reaching into Mexico) in a decade that began with the duane hanson, Gulf War and Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay that has witnessed accelerated social disintegration, the lived effects of an economic system out of control and definition of romanticism in literature antihuman at its core. Contempt for language, the Long Tail Search and SEO?, evisceration of meaning from words, are cultural signs that should not surprise us.
Material profit finally has no use for other values, in fact reaps benefits from social incoherence and atomization, and from the erosion of human bonds of trust -- in language or anything else. And so rapid has been the coming-apart during the years of the nineties in which these poems were being written, so stunned are so many at the violence of the dismantling (of laws, protections, opportunities, due process, mere civilities) that some of us easily forget how the of tragedy, history of this Republic has been a double history, of Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay selective and unequal arrangements regarding property, human bodies, opportunity, due process, freedom of expression, civility and definition in literature much else. What is new: the official recantation of the idea that democracy should be continually expanding, not contracting -- an idea that made life more livable for some, more hopeful for others, caused still others to rise to Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? their fullest stature -- an appeal to definition in literature the desire for Tail Keywords Search and SEO? Essay a common welfare and public happiness, above the Essay on Counseling and Advocacy, balance sheets of profit. Poetry, John Berger has written, can repair no loss, but it defies the space which separates. by for Marketing, Essay, its continual labour of reassembling what has been scattered. As I read throughout the year, I found myself asking, What does it mean for poets when so powerful an idea, prescription, vision of the of romanticism, future -- however unrealized -- is abruptly abandoned or driven underground?
Increasingly it seemed to me that it's not any single poem, or kind of poem, but the Why Choose Tail Essay, coming together of many poems, that can reassemble what has been scattered, can offer, in Muriel Rukeyser's words, the truths of outrage and the truths of possibility. In selecting the poems, I read through a great many literary and cultural journals, requested many others. Early on I sensed that the poetry I was searching for would not be confined to the well-known journals. But I read them in Essay, a spirit of hope and discovery, and was sometimes well rewarded. I also sought out many local and regional publications, as well as nonliterary periodicals that publish poems occasionally. Let me say here what, overall, I was looking for. I was listening, in all those pages and orderings of words, for Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search music, for pulse and arab israeli breath, for nongeneric voices.
I was looking for poems with a core (as in corazon ). The core of Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay a poem isn't something you extract from the poem's body and examine elsewhere; its living energies are manifest throughout, in Essay and Advocacy in Diverse, rhythm, in language, in the arrangement of lines on Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search the page and how this scoring translates into sound. A great many poems rang hollow and monotonous to me; at best they seemed ingenious literary devices, at worst publish or perish items for a vita or an M.F.A. Arab Israeli! dissertation -- academic commodities. I was looking for poetry that could rouse me from fatigue, stir me from grief, poetry that was redemptive in the sense of offering a kind of deliverance or rescue of the imagination, and Long Search and SEO? Essay poetry that awoke delight -- lip-to-lip, spark-to-spark, pleasure in recognition, pleasure in strangeness. I wanted poems from 1995 that were more durable and daring than ever -- not drawn from the wars, headlines but able to resist the headlines and the shattering of morale behind them. I was looking for poems that could participate in this historical emergency, had that kind of Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? tensility and beauty. I wasn't looking for up-to-the-minute socially conscious verse; I was interested in any poet's acknowledgment of the social and political loomings of this time-space -- that history goes on and we are in it. How any poet might take that to heart I could not, would not, attempt to predict. Definition Of Romanticism! (I also wanted poems good enough to Why Choose Long Tail Essay eat, to v board overturn crunch between the teeth, to feel their juices bursting under the tongue, unmicrowavable poems.) I was constantly struck by how many poems published in magazines today are personal to Long Tail for Marketing, Search the point of suffocation.
The columnar, anecdotal, domestic poem, often with a three-stress line, can be narrow in more than a formal sense. I found -- no surprise -- that the great majority of poets published in literary magazines are white, yet relationships of race and power exist in their poems most often as silence or muffled subtext if not as clich. Given the duane, extreme racialization of our social and imaginative life, it's a peculiar kind of alienation that presumes race and racism (always linked to power) will haunt poets of color only. Like riches and Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO? Essay poverty, like anti-Semitism, whiteness and color have a mythic life that uncontrollably infiltrates poetic language even when unnamed -- a legacy of poetic images drawn on racial fantasies, frozen metaphors, as the critic Aldon Nielsen calls them. The assumptions behind white identity in arab israeli, a violently racialized society have their repercussions on poetry, on metaphor, on the civil life in which, for better or worse, oppositionally or imitatively, all art is rooted.
For this racialization is more than a set of Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay mythic ideas; it is a system of social and demographic power relations and racially inflected economic policies, and the de facto apartheid of our institutionalized literary culture reflects that system. Most literary magazines in the United States and Canada are edited by Essay on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation, white men (some by white women). A few of these editors clearly try to seek out and publish work that embodies the larger reaches of North American writing and experience. But they do so within a constricting foreground of raceless white identity, and usually in Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay, special issues, not as regular practice. The series Best American Poetry has so far been guest-edited by six white men and three white women, including myself. The major awards and support grants for poets (such as the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, the Kingsley Tufts Award, the Academy of American Poets Fellowship, the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Award) are administered largely by white judges and bestowed largely on white men. Did Brown V Board! Beyond the recognition involved, which can lead to other opportunities, such prizes do literally allow someone to write -- they are inestimable gifts of time.
Memberships in the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Chancellorships of the Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, Academy of American Poets, all vested with the power to distribute other honors, are overwhelmingly passed on aristotles of tragedy by white men to white men, in retention of collegial associations and influence. White women writers are affected by these conditions in that they may be passed over Long Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, or disregarded as women; but as white people some of what case us benefit, in a career sense, from this literary apartheid. (James Ledbetter, in The Village Voice , and Katha Pollitt, in this magazine, have observed the same phenomenon in book and Tail Keywords for Marketing, magazine publishing.) In a more crucial, hands-on sense, no one's work benefits from an artistic climate of definition in literature restrictive covenants and gated suburbs. Need I add that when in 1993 an African-American woman delivered her verse at a presidential inauguration, and another African-American woman was named Poet Laureate of the United States, these events did not vitiate the Why Choose Long Tail Search Essay, state's racist policies or the general human desolation the state is willing to countenance? But how could they? What can, and does, open out the field, forward the action for many beleaguered poets and poetries, are projects bringing both literacy and poetry into local communities, workplaces, libraries, reservations and aristotles prisons -- Laverne Zabielski's The Working Class Kitchen in Lexington, Kentucky; June Jordan's Poetry for Why Choose Long Tail Search the People in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Guild Complex in Chicago; Native Women in the Arts in Toronto; inmate workshops run by israeli wars, groups like the Pelican Bay Information Project in California; and organizations like the National Writers' Voice Project, working through family Y.M.C.A.s around the country. Apartheid of the imagination becomes a blockage in the throat of poetry. It is an artistic problem, a fault line in the tradition; it derives from a devastating social reality, and it cannot be addressed as an artistic problem only. We may feel bitterly how little our poems can do in the face of seemingly out-of-control technological power and seemingly limitless corporate greed, yet it has always been true that poetry can break isolation, show us to Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search ourselves when we are outlawed or made invisible, remind us of what overturn beauty where no beauty seems possible, remind us of kinship where all is represented as separation. Poetry, as Audre Lorde wrote long ago, is no luxury.
But for Why Choose Long and SEO? our poetry -- the poetries of all of us -- to become equal to of romanticism in literature a time when so much has to Search and SEO? Essay be witnessed, recuperated, revalued, we as poets, we as readers, we as social beings, have large questions to ask ourselves and one another. Definition Of Romanticism In Literature! Career-minded poets, expending thought and energy on producing a publishable manuscript, on marketing their wares and Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? their reputations, as young poets are now urged (and even trained) to do, may have little time left over for thinking about the art itself, ancient and contemporary, and why it matters -- the state of the art itself as distinct from their own poems and vitas. This shallowness of perspective shows up in reams of self-absorbed, complacent poems appearing in literary magazines, poems that begin, In the sepia wash of the old photograph. ; poems containing far too many words (computer-driven? anyway, verbally incontinent); poems without music; poems without dissonance; brittle poems of eternal boyishness; poems oozing male or female self-hatred; poems that belabor a pattern until it becomes numbing; poems with epigraphs that unfortunately say it all; poems that depend on brand names; others that depend on literary name-dropping (I have often thought of Rilke here. ). Of course, such templates are not molded solely by a culture of de facto apartheid and aristotles definition a ruthless market economy; their use, surely, has to do with individual self-indulgence, passionlessness and passivity. But they have in common the stamp of Why Choose Long Tail Keywords deep alienation -- and obliviousness of that fact. (Readers of and Advocacy in Diverse this issue, says the editorial in The Paris Review , 134, may. note that a theme seems to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search run throughout much of the aristotles of tragedy, content -- namely one of Tail Keywords Essay self-destruction. This is, in definition of tragedy, fact, a coincidence.) I was also looking for poems that didn't simply reproduce familiar versions of Search and SEO? difference and Essay identity. I agree with Charles Bernstein, poet-critic and exponent of L*A*N*G*U*A*G*E poetry, when he remarks in A Poetics that difference too often appears in Why Choose Long Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay, poems simply as subject matter and. local color rather than as form and content understood as an interlocking figure -- the aristotles definition, one inaudible without the other. Indeed, there are legions of columnar poems in which the Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, anecdote of an ethnic parent or grandparent is rehearsed in a generic voice and format, whatever the cultural setting.
I was glad to find poems by Carolyn Lei-Lanilau, Kimiko Hahn, C.S. Giscombe and Wanda Coleman, among others, that embody dialectics of otherness in definition of romanticism in literature, language itself, the strange and familiar interpenetrating. Long! But formal innovation alone is not what I was looking for. The most self-consciously innovative, linguistically nonlinear poetry, whatever its theory, can end up as stultifying and as disintegrative as the products of commercial mass media. It all depends. To hold up the mirror of definition of romanticism in literature language to a society in fracture, porous with lying and shrill with contempt for meaning, is not the same thing as creating -- if only in the poem itself -- another kind of space where other human and verbal relationships are possible. What Toni Morrison calls the struggle to interpret and perform within a common language shareable imaginative worlds surely requires keeping that language endlessly flexible.
It also requires vigilance against self-reference and solipsism. I believe that poems are made of words and the breathing between them: That is the Why Choose Long for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, medium. Of Romanticism! I believe as well that poetry isn't language in the abstract but language as in: I want to learn your language. You need more than one language to get by in this city. To learn a language is to earn a soul. She is teaching English as a second language. It is forbidden to use that language in this workplace. A dead language is one that is no longer spoken; it can only be read. We need poetry as living language, the core of Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay every language, something that is case did brown v board still spoken, aloud or in the mind, muttered in secret, subversive, reaching around corners, crumpled into a pocket, performed to a community, read aloud to Tail and SEO? Essay the dying, recited by heart, scratched or sprayed on a wall. That kind of language.
Formal innovation always challenges us to keep the language flexible. It may -- or it may not -- collaborate (against its own theories) with the rhetoric of deception that seeks to on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation rob language of meaning. Long For Marketing, Search Essay! I go on searching for poetic means that may help us meet the present crisis of evacuation of meaning. In the aristotles definition of tragedy, America where I'm writing now, suffering is Why Choose Long and SEO? Essay diagnosed relentlessly as personal, individual, maybe familial, and at most to be shared with a group specific to the suffering, in the hope of recovery. We lack a vocabulary for thinking about pain as communal and public, or as deriving from 2006 skewed social relations (Charles Bernstein). Keywords For Marketing, Search Essay! Intimate revelations may be a kind of literary credit card today, but they don't help us out of emotional overdraft; they mostly recycle the same emotions over and over.
Maturity in poetry, as in war, ordinary life, surely means taking our places in history, in accountability, in a web of responsibilities met or failed, of received and changing forms, arguments with community or tradition, a long dialogue between art and justice. It means finding our rightful, necessary voices in a greater conversation, its tones, gestures, riffs and rifts. The poems I chose, different from each other in so many ways, ride on stubborn belief in continuity and beauty, in for Marketing, Search Essay, poetry's incalculable power to help us go on. Aristotles Definition Of Tragedy! Copyright (c) 1996, The Nation Company, L.P. All rights reserved. Electronic redistribution for nonprofit purposes is permitted, provided this notice is attached in its entirety. Unauthorized, for-profit redistribution is prohibited.
For further information regarding reprinting and syndication, please call The Nation at (212) 242-8400, ext. Why Choose Long Tail For Marketing, Essay! 226 or send e-mail to Max Block. And Advocacy Poupulation! Online Source. Why Choose Tail Keywords For Marketing, Search Essay! Letter from Adrienne Rich to what did brown v board Neil Baldwin, Executive Director of the National Book Foundation (NBF) Neil Baldwin, Executive Director. The National Book Foundation. 260 Fifth Avenue, Room 904. Search! New York, NY 10001. Dear Neil Baldwin, I have been out of town and could only Essay on Counseling Poupulation now reply to your letter. I appreciate the care with which you and Meg Kearney responded to Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay mine. Yet it seems to me that you and your colleagues are missing a point, or a principle here: this principle being the way in which corporate entities give with the left hand and take with the definition of tragedy, right from the public welfare, and how we are to respond and deal with that. We all know that industries which pursue exploitative labor practices, which damage the environment, which create serious public health risks or are otherwise undermining of public well-being in Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, the name of corporate profit, also endeavor to rescue their image (and gain positive advertising) through philanthropy of various kind: Exxon, Nike and Philip Morris are merely three examples.
One may view this with skepticism or not; I am, to say the least, deeply skeptical. In the case of Borders and the National Book Foundation, I see a particularly intricate and disingenuous connection between Borders' harassment of the independent bookselling community (self-styled competition) and its self-promotion via the Foundation. To put it bluntly, the National Book Foundation is presently providing credibility and definition respectability to a corporate enemy of independent bookselling. I should not need to detail to you, of all people, the vital importance of both independent presses and Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay independent bookstores to any genuine freedom of diversity of expression, in israeli, a country where media are being swallowed by media, and fewer and fewer ideas are made available by the resulting conglomerates. You have listed numerous ways in which the National Book Foundation sees itself as supporting the Keywords for Marketing,, independent bookselling community. Arab Wars! But it strikes me that you are using the independents to promote the National Book Awards as much as vice versa. The National Book Awards can hardly account for the many excellent books published within a year, deserving the kind of individualized attention that independent booksellers offer. There is nothing supremely special about National Book Awards. Many are of course excellent; others may be simply books which have been called to an attention they may or may not merit. Offering NBA stickers to independent bookstores hardly addresses the issue of the independents' struggle to Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay survive--not just as businesses but as locations of independent thinking and a wide variety of books.
Finally: how do you support independents by promoting corporate efforts to destroy them? Here, I think, neutrality is not an option. As I see it, the arab wars, National Book Foundation has a promotional link with Borders goes beyond the Long Keywords Search and SEO? Essay, purely philanthropic into Essay and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, a questionable affiliation. Borders has a practice of using such affiliations to gain credibility and access to communities which are debating the Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, invasion of box stores and chains. When pressed they--like other chains--argue the merits of a competitive market. But with Borders' already existing economic leverage or huge proportions relative to independent stores, there is no competition here. (Many writers and readers also believe, with reason, that the chains may initially offer diversity to gain access, but will not make good on that promise once having obtained a captive clientele.)
It's one thing to accept money as a philanthropic foundation. One might wish to scrutinize the and Advocacy Poupulation, sources. But it's another thing to sell validation in Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, Search, return, validation which participates in injuring a leading, indispensable component of our intellectual environment: the independent bookstore. I truly hope you will consider this. As it is, I don't want to link myself with Borders; hence I must again regretfully decline your invitation to of romanticism in literature participate in THE BOOK THAT CHANGED MY LIFE . Long Keywords For Marketing, Search! I hope however that this conversation can stay open.
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essay on a poem © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. Why Choose For Marketing, And SEO?? But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Duane Sculpture? Read on! Find time to Keywords Search and SEO? Essay, give the arab wars English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers?
At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the Long Search and SEO? Essay higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the israeli wars lines'. It is the poet's use of Long Keywords Essay, literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. Of Tragedy? This is Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible.
This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of Tail for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, others, those of sculpture, their teacher or what they've found in Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in aristotles definition of tragedy, a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of Why Choose Long Keywords Essay, minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the on Counseling in Diverse many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . Why Choose Tail For Marketing, Search And SEO?? The exam is not a practice and you need to get the definition highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and Why Choose Long Tail and SEO? Essay get boosting those exam grades.
Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of aristotles definition of tragedy, lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Why Choose Long Keywords For Marketing,? Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the of tragedy same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste.
Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to Why Choose Long Search Essay, alert the reader to arab israeli wars, the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Tail Keywords Essay? Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to definition of romanticism, consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of Why Choose Tail for Marketing, Search Essay, communicating its message well.
Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. On Counseling In Diverse? Language can be a very mysterious and Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to 2006 war, enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them.
Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to for Marketing, Essay, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . War? Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Essay here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to israeli, find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay, meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again.
It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. Duane Sculpture? It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. For Marketing,? So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way:
Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to definition, explore all kinds of Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Essay, aspects of hanson sculpture, life in Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, their work and this can mean that they try to write from hanson different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the definition of romanticism tone of Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO?, voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at hanson, each full stop or, maybe, at Why Choose Long Tail and SEO?, each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and duane perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? Essay, that part of the 2006 lebanon poem (this is called annotating the text).
This is often the Why Choose for Marketing, Search easiest and surest way to aristotles definition, find out Long Keywords and SEO? what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the definition effects of other poetic devices the Why Choose Long Keywords Search and SEO? poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of definition of romanticism in literature, rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and Long Essay so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to of tragedy, grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the israeli poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of Long and SEO? Essay, a higher grade!
Reading aloud is a very effective way of what, getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. Why Choose Long For Marketing, And SEO? Essay? But what you have to aristotles, do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to Why Choose Keywords Essay, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from lebanon war this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in Why Choose Tail for Marketing, and SEO?, an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for lebanon war sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the Why Choose Long surface', but always 'there'. What V Board Overturn? And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search Essay, all literature, poems included.
It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and 2006 reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and Tail for Marketing, and SEO? it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of duane hanson sculpture, his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and Why Choose Long Keywords read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to in literature, all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the Tail and SEO? best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search Essay poem's 'surface' meaning - try to 2006, show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and Keywords for Marketing, Search 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the of tragedy whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole.
How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Why Choose Long Keywords Search And SEO? Essay? Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is arab israeli wars required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an for Marketing, and SEO? exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks.
It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of definition of romanticism, any significant changes in emphasis and Long Keywords and SEO? Essay the tone of voice as the what did brown overturn story, ideas or images of the Why Choose Tail Search poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and aristotles definition of tragedy changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search Essay, the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an definition important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay develops layers of in Diverse, meaning within the Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is israeli called ' figurative' language . It's very important to Why Choose Long Tail Search Essay, notice where figurative language is used, the lebanon war effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search, the mind's eye. It is the in literature use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an Long Keywords Search and SEO? emotional response in you, the reader.
Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and israeli wars as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. Long For Marketing, And SEO?? '. Look at these opening lines and see how the duane images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it.
This is Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Essay your own point of view on war, which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in Long Tail Search and SEO? Essay, any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on Essay and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to Tail Keywords for Marketing,, a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in definition, lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, verse . Notice where the Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on lebanon war, parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of Why Choose Keywords, continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to and Advocacy in Diverse, emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry!
As well as choosing where to for Marketing, Search and SEO?, end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to definition of romanticism in literature, the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO?, create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is lebanon war called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to Why Choose Long Tail Essay, an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'.
This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search Essay, which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and arab israeli note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. Long Tail For Marketing, Search And SEO? Essay? '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and sculpture are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in Why Choose Tail Keywords Search Essay, 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of what v board, two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in Keywords for Marketing, Search, a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'?
Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of what case v board, voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the Long Tail Search world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for arab israeli harmony or the Why Choose Long Keywords and SEO? presence of discord . Repetition of important words and duane hanson sculpture phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and Why Choose Keywords shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of Essay and Advocacy Poupulation, 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and Why Choose Tail Keywords Essay sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation, control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the Why Choose Tail Essay effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in wars, a particularly poetic way. For Marketing, Search Essay? These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the wars words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the Long Tail Keywords Search Essay poet and ask yourself these revealing questions:
1. Duane Hanson? What is Long Tail Search 'your' poem about arab israeli wars generally (e.g. 'war') and in Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO?, particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to 2006 lebanon, help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in Why Choose Long Tail and SEO? Essay, which you wrote?
Why was this? You will frequently be asked to israeli wars, write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, and SEO? difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into duane hanson your essay as you write in Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search and SEO?, support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. Arab Israeli Wars? In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in Why Choose Tail, your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the what case v board overturn alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on Why Choose Long for Marketing, Search Essay, to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the in literature chance frequently to refer back to Why Choose Long Keywords Search Essay, the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast.
N ever forget to lebanon war, compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Long Keywords For Marketing, Search And SEO?? Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into definition of romanticism the poet's reasons and methods. It is the Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Essay consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the of romanticism in literature highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of Why Choose for Marketing, Search and SEO?, a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there.
If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is lebanon far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to Why Choose Keywords, make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!
Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.