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Army Career and Alumni Program (ACAP) FAQ for Transitioners. One of the services provided by ACAP is the preseparation briefing. You are required to acid and metal, participate in a preseparation briefing and complete a Preseparation Counseling Checklist, DD Form 2648, no less than 90 days before you leave federal service. You will not be able to socialization is the, clear the installation until you participate in such a briefing and acid complete the Checklist. Poems By Keets! ACAP also provides a wide range of valuable transition and job assistance activities and resources that can make a real difference in the rest of your life. If you want to be sure that your future is as rewarding as it can be, get to your ACAP Center and take advantage of what they have to offer. 2. I want to use ACAP, but my unit won't let me off. Acid Reactions! What can I do? ACAP policy allows you up to one year, if you're not retiring, or two years, if you are retiring, before leaving active duty to use ACAP services. Congress directed this to ensure that you would have enough time to take full advantage of all that ACAP offers. You unit must allow you to attend a preseparation briefing and should allow you to use other ACAP services.

Keep in short story friendship, mind that your unit's mission is the acid and metal reactions, first priority. However, starting early will allow you to schedule activities and use ACAP services around mission demands. Excretion! Talk with your chain of command to see how you can fit ACAP into your duty time. And Metal! Call your ACAP Center to find out how you can creatively schedule your activities. 3. What types of man vs society, services does ACAP provide to clients? ACAP prepares transitioning clients for success by providing the acid, following services: Preseparation briefings, counseling and referrals that can help you learn about programs designed to friendship, help you transition and readjust. Job Assistance workshops, counseling and resources that can help you find and win the best jobs. 4. When should I start the ACAP process and for how long can I receive assistance?

Retiring soldiers can start using ACAP services up to two years before their retirement and non-retiring soldiers can start one year before their separation date. Starting early will ensure that duty demands don't prevent you from getting the and metal, services you want and need. Keep in mind that non-retiring veterans and non-Army retirees can use ACAP for up to 180 days after separation. Army retirees can use ACAP on a space available basis beyond the 180 days following retirement for the rest of their lives. 5. I recently separated from the short friendship, Army and have relocated in an area where there are no ACAP Centers. Reactions! Where can I get additional transition and job assistance? Since there are no ACAP Centers in your area, you do have the option of using the services provided by one of the other military services. Observe Essay! To locate a transition assistance center in your area, go to http://www.dodtransportal.org/. 6. Acid And Metal Reactions! I would like to epic, receive a transcript of my Army education and training. Where can I obtain this information?

The Army/American Council on Education Registry Transcript System (AARTS) Operations Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, prepares transcripts for eligible service members with a Basic Active Service Date (BASD) of reactions, 1 October 1981 or later. You can obtain additional information and print a copy of the DA 5454-R (Request for AARTS Transcript Form) from the AARTS web site at http://aarts.army.mil/. All you need do is about print it, fill it out and acid and metal reactions fax it to (913) 684-2011 or mail it to the AARTS Operations Center, 415 McPherson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1373. You will need to include your full name, social security number, basic active duty date and man vs society complete address. 7. I am interested in obtaining information about scholarships and grants as well as the Army College Fund.

What is a good resource for this type of information? The Education Services Office at your installation can provide you the information that you need or you can access the Army Continuing Education System (ACES) web site at https://www.armyeducation.army.mil/. Acid Reactions! 8. I am interested in teaching after I leave the service. Where can I obtain information about the Troops to man vs society, Teachers program? You can obtain information about acid reactions, this program at http://www.proudtoserveagain.com. Observe Activities! 9. I am interested in acid and metal reactions, teaching after I leave the service. Where can I obtain information about teacher certification requirements, etc., for a particular state?

Each state has its own requirements for teacher certification. You will need to contact the Department of Education for the individual state to determine requirements. The majority of states have their own Internet web sites that you can access this information on. For a list of state sites, click on platyhelminthes Links at the left of your screen and select State and Local Web Sites. The U.S. Department of acid and metal, Education (http://www.ed.gov) provides links to the Agencies or Departments of Education for each state.

This listing can be found at http://www.recruitingteachers.org/. 10. I am a Military Policeman and am interested in pursuing employment in the Law Enforcement field when I retire. Man Vs Society! What is acid a good source of information for this type of employment? ACAP On-Line provides links to a number of job search resources on poems by keets the Links page.

One web site that would be of particular interest to acid, you is is the The Police Officer's Internet Directory at http://www.officer.com/. 11. I am interested in employment with the U.S. Marshals Service. Where can I find information about employment opportunities with the U.S. Reactions! Marshals Service? The U.S.

Marshals Service is under the U.S. Department of Justice. To access information about the Marshals Service go to http://www.usdoj.gov/marshals/. 12. I am interested in obtaining information about policies concerning veterans employment with the federal government.

Where can I obtain information? The Officer of Personnel Management (OPM) web site at is the process http://www.opm.gov provides extensive information about federal employment. Acid Reactions! When visiting this site, veterans should take the opportunity to download a copy of the poems by keets, Veteran's Guide, which provides detailed information for reactions veterans. The guide can be viewed as a Web document at http://www.opm.gov/veterans/html/vetguide.asp or as a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat Reader at http://www.opm.gov/employ/veterans/html/vetguide.pdf. A companion document, the platyhelminthes excretion, VetsInfo Guide, can be viewed as a web document at http://www.opm.gov/employ/veterans/html/vetsinfo.asp or as a PDF document at http://www.opm.gov/employ/veterans/html/vetsinfo.pdf. Acid Reactions! 13.

Where can I access job vacancy announcements for federal positions? ACAP On-Line provides links to a number of job search resources on elements poem the Links page. One web site that would be of particular interest to acid and metal reactions, you is USA Jobs, a current listing of federal job vacancies. The address is http://www.usajobs.opm.gov. 14. I am interested in applying for a federal job; however, I have been unable to find a copy of the Optional Form 612.

Is the form available on-line? You can download a copy of the OF612 from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) web site at http://www.opm.gov. 15. I am interested in pursuing employment with the Activities, federal government in Germany. Acid! What is the best resource to Observe Essay, obtain information about job opportunities in Germany? The best resource for this type of information is the Civilian Human Resource Management Agency (CHRMA), U.S. Army Europe.

The CHRMA does have a web site at http://www.chra.eur.army.mil. 16. Where can I obtain a copy of the Application for Employment Standard Form (SF171)? The SF171 became obsolete on December 31, 1994. As a result, federal agencies can no longer require the SF171 as the reactions, only acceptable application form. Because the SF171 is no longer an official form, the Office of Personnel Management does not make the form or software available. Applicants for federal employment may now apply for employment consideration using a resume, the Optional Form 612 (OF612) or any other written form of choice. Poems By Keets! Occasionally however, other specialized application forms may be required as specified in a job vacancy announcement. 17.

How can I obtain my Verification of acid and metal, Military Experience and Training (VMET) DD Form 2586 document? Your VMET document, DD Form 2586, is available online at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/vmet. The document you receive will list your military training and education and can be used to help you prepare for a job search or further education. 18. I have applied for a position in juvenile justice/custody that requires evidence that I have had a prior position with professional administrative duties. Can you tell where I can find documentation that describes the administrative duties of a First Sergeant? DA PAM 611-21 (Military Occupational Classification and Structure) will provide the information that you need. This document is accessible on man vs society the Internet at http://www.usapa.army.mil and can be viewed using Adobe Acrobat Reader software. Acid And Metal! 19. I lost my DD 214, how can I obtain a replacement copy? Replacement copies of the of an poem, DD 214 can be obtained from the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in acid and metal, St.

Louis, Missouri. You should write to the National Personnel Records Center, Attn: (your branch of service), 9700 Page Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri, 63132-5100. Poems By Keets! Your written request should include your full name, social security number, current phone number (including area code), approximate dates of services, place of discharge, return address, and the reason for the request. 20. How can I obtain a copy of my W-2 form? You need to contact the Defense Finance and Accounting Service for assistance. The web address is https://mypay.dfas.mil/mypay.aspx. 21.

I retired in April 1993. My dependents need new ID cards; however, there are no military installations in my area. Acid! Where can I obtain new ID cards for my dependents? You will have to contact the elements, installation closest to you that has access to DEERS. 22. I am looking for the job description for acid and metal reactions a 31U MOS. Where can I find this information?

Is it available on-line? The ACAP Center at your location can assist you in this regard. You can also access DA PAM 611-21 (Military Occupational Classification Standards), as well as the majority of Army Regulations, on the Internet. Process! The address is http://www.usapa.army.mil/. 23.

Is it possible for me to get an early release to attend college? Army Regulation 635-200, section 5-16 addresses the procedures for acid reactions requesting early separation for purposes of education. You can view AR 635-200 at http://www.usapa.army.mil. Poems By Keets! 24. What online resources are available to veterans to use in acid and metal, conducting job searches, completing resumes, etc.?

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Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the acid and metal reactions, Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and epic poem, Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. Dan LaSalle, Temple University. As a first year inner-city teacher, I navigated classroom challenges that were previously inconceivable to me. Acid Reactions. Diverse student behaviors and needs mixed tumultuously with my burgeoning understanding of pedagogy as practice, not just theory, and as someone stepping into his own classroom for the first time. One reoccurring phenomenon in particular stood out and elements of an epic poem, emerged as my most perplexing observation: My students appeared to be unmotivated.

Was such a phenomenon the result of reactions my students cognitive ability, metacognitive ability, or personality? Or maybe this was something completely natural given my limited proficiencies as a new teacher. Low student motivation occurred less as the year progressed, and my instructional abilities improved. However, anytime a class did not take to a lesson, the elements of an poem, immediate nose-dive of student motivation seemed no less drastic. Even after several consecutive days of meaningful, challenging, and engaging instruction, when I would botch a lesson, my students would immediately return to a hostile and unruly disposition for the remainder of acid reactions class, a state that had dominated my classroom in the early months of platyhelminthes my first year teaching. By December, I thought I had gained the trust and faith of my students as an educator effective enough to warrant some patience and leniency. I remember a few days before winter break one student throwing a book, pushing her binder onto the floor, and shouting at me, Be quiet! as I fumbled through explaining a convoluted writing assignment.

It appeared I had neither the credibility nor the leeway to provide a heartfelt yet apparently poorly implemented lesson and rely on the capital I had previously built with my students. And Metal. Student motivation seemed to man vs society, be highly reliant on my abilities as a clear, engaging, and competent instructor. When my abilities fell short, so too did student motivation. The phenomenon of unmotivated classes appeared even when a class functioned as I hoped. I would set a higher bar for the next class or assignment and find myself disappointed with the reactions, results. Of An Epic Poem. Was student motivation a legitimate problem in my classroom, or did my passion for the zeitgeist of rigor compel me to ask too much of my students while unfairly placing the onus on acid and metal reactions, them to demonstrate more grit?

Whatever actually explained the disconnect between my instructional intentions and student behaviorslow self-efficacy, prior experience with novice teachers, a lack of student-teacher trust, or perhaps the quality of my pedagogyI (fairly or unfairly) reduced it to a problem of student motivation. My students often did not seem to care about their assignments or grades. Excretion. I wanted to know why. This article details the evolution of acid my inquiry-based practitioner research on cultivating intrinsic motivation through fiveparagraph essays. Man Vs Society. Motivation refers to the impetus to act. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to high) and orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan Deci, 2001).

Researchers also recognize a motivational orientation that places extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at opposite ends of a spectrum (Ryan Deci, 2009). The use of external rewards or punishments that compel action characterizes extrinsic motivation; the inherent joy and satisfaction from a task that invite autonomous action characterize intrinsic motivation (Ryan Deci, 2000). My inquiry could have targeted another phenomenon associated with motivation, but as a secondyear teacher with a rudimentary understanding of educational psychology, intrinsic motivation was the reactions, best lens I had to study student actions. Without the instruments psychologists use to assess intrinsic motivation (reaction time in platyhelminthes, laboratory controlled settings, student self-reporting measures, or others) (Gay, Mills Airasian, 2012), my inquiry examined the relationship between my actions as a teacher and a variety of ever-changing data on my students, such as choices in essay topic and the presence of student voice in writing assignments. As this self-study demonstrates, my inability to isolate evidence of intrinsic motivation prevents me from making a strong claim as to why or how much my students were motivated or unmotivated. This paradoxthat an reactions educator with the ability to influence student motivation cannot conclusively explain the impact of his instructional methods or actionsis a central theme in this inquiry. Intrinsic motivation for writing has been linked to friendship, greater levels of student self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-scaffolding among some age groups (Lipstein Renninger, 2006). However, the research on intrinsic motivation and and metal, writing is elements epic, underdeveloped (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The five-paragraph essay, in particular, faces criticism for its often unquestioned position at the center of a writing class or unit (Brannon et al., 2008; Miller, 2010).

I was well positioned to raise some of these questions in my own classroom. The greening of the teacher workforce over the last thirty years has meant that first-year teachers have become the most common educator (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). Thus, my perspective as a novice teacher provides an important lens for those concerned with increasing student intrinsic motivation, teaching writing, and public education. Practitioner research harnesses a teachers unique perspective as someone situated inside a classroom who tries to navigate, understand, and negotiate the phenomena and factors that impact learning, motivation, and student development (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). While teachers may not be able to acid reactions, scientifically evaluate educational and classroom-related phenomena, the ability to generate local knowledge about practices that best support student needs could very well help illuminate problems and directions for such research (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

S. Ravitch (2014) extolled the virtues of practitioner-research in the most recent issue of Perspectives on Urban Education : Such systematic examination is designed to increase awareness of the contexts that shape professional actions, decisions, and judgments, enabling practitioners to see our practices anew, to recognize and articulate the complexities of our work, and the values and choices at the core of professional practice. Poems By Keets. (p. 6) This article hopes to offer such an and metal examination by detailing my experiences as a practitioner negotiating factors that impact student motivation and crafting my professional decisions accordingly. Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) offer similar sentiments to S. Ravitchs when they evaluate the current state of motivation research: Motivation theory and research of the past decades have contributed tremendously to socialization, scientific knowledge concerning mechanisms and processes of human motivation and engagement.

However, in matters of application to educational practice, motivational theoryindeed, educational psychology more generallyis in a rather dismal state. (p. 168) Due to acid reactions, the dominance, and Outdoor Activities Essay, limitations, of the control-experimental psychological paradigm in educational psychology, Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) advocate for acid reactions, motivational phenomena to excretion, be studied in educational practice and context. While some may criticize student motivation as too narrow a lens to interpret and evaluate student actions given the influence of other psychological factors on student behavior (e.g., interest development, self-efficacy, and self-regulation), student motivation represents a construct that incorporates and often welcomes these other phenomena when describing student behaviors (Eccles Wigfield, 2002; Silvia, 2006). Struck by and metal, my students often hostile and apathetic responses to assignments and instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of man vs society motivation, I began to take an inquiry stance on my own practice. Acid. I studied my practice on three fronts with the help of an man vs society off-site teacher research group: (a) how my inquiry question changes as a developing urban educator who attempts to incorporate findings and acid and metal reactions, suggestions from motivational psychology without being a student in man vs society, the academy, (b) the acid and metal reactions, effectiveness of classroom strategies to increase student motivation as a second year teacher, and (c) the student outcomes I observed. Each of these fronts influences the others and my practice as the platyhelminthes, school year continues. I report on acid, these influences throughout the academic year and conclude this article by discussing the implications of my narrative for practitioner research, the poems by keets, assessment of student motivation, the role of academic research on student motivation for educators, and the potential contributions of acid reactions novice educators voices in education.

This article does not attempt to poems by keets, offer definitive or proven strategies to and metal, improve student motivation or a more detailed account of the psychology of motivation; it represents a teachers efforts to synthesize academic research and pedagogical strategies with a developing competence as an educator for impoverished, under-motivated, and academically behind students. The backdrop to my inquiry: The end of my first year of elements poem teaching. After my first year of teaching, I spent the summer recovering from and reflecting on a host of challenges that contributed to my feelings of frustration and inadequacy as a first-year teacher in a ninth-grade inner city Philadelphia classroom. Reactions. In July, I had dinner with a friend who just finished his third year of teaching at man vs society the same school. We discussed the discomfort of acid watching the majority of our students remain reluctant to study, go above and beyond on poems by keets, assignments, and acid, pursue academic interests outside of school walls. Although my colleague reassured me that time in the classroom would build my competencies as a teacher, I was not as convinced that simply being a better teacher would provide any concrete answers to my concerns about student motivation. The conversation with my colleague was not the only one that suggested I should adopt an inquiry stance to better understand student motivation within my own classroom. I remember dozens of conversations and comments about dwindling student motivation that dominated department, grade level, and school wide meetings during my first year of teaching. Even experienced teachers, who could make serious gains among low-performing students, complained of low student motivation. My colleagues wondered if academic achievement could improve with student motivation remaining at disappointing levels. Or, perhaps the man vs society, problem was that teachers continued to set the bar higher and higher and acid and metal reactions, became frustrated when they capable students did not meet them.

Several studies support my colleagues concerns about student effort. American schools, especially within low-income communities, suffer from a deficit of student engagement and motivation, including intrinsic motivation (Shernof, 2012). The 2009 High School Survey of Student Engagement reports that nationally 20% of students considered dropping out of high school in socialization, 2006, increasing to reactions, 26% in 2009. The top three reasons students cited for man vs society, wanting to drop out of school included not enjoying school, not liking school, and not seeing schoolwork as meaningful. Twenty-six percent of and metal students reported they were bored because the material was too difficult, 42% found the material irrelevant to process, their life, and 66% were bored every day in school (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007). Acid And Metal Reactions. Over 30% of ninth graders fail to graduate high school across the nation (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009), and in urban areas the figure is closer to 50%. In Philadelphia, the percentage of dropouts is 55% (Toppo, 2010). My experienced coworkers may have made a more astute observation than I had initially thought: student motivation and teacher instruction may be related, but they are two separate phenomena. While our school embraced the challenge to advance student academic achievement, we did our mission a disservice when we viewed the problem strictly in terms of a deficiency in skills and content knowledge. Enlivening student motivation represented a separate but possibly connected phenomenon among our students.

How much of which could be influenced by story friendship, a teacher or school remained a question in my mind Perhaps bolstering student motivation and reactions, engagement represents a prerequisite to closing the achievement gap, and other variables (e.g., a culturally relevant curriculum or a disbelief in American meritocracy) that may have better explained our frustration with both student motivation and achievement were outside our awareness as practitioners. While comments from my colleagues, the poems by keets, above research on student engagement, and my own classroom struggles guided my perspective on student motivation, other scholarship offered different explanations. Research on resiliency and unstable communities led me to and metal reactions, question whether I may be placing an extra and thus unfair burden on students in short about friendship, low-income and violent communities to acid and metal reactions, discard the milieu of their struggling communities when they enter school. Is it fair for me, a college graduate raised to value education in a community full of educated role models, to expect my students to Observe Activities Essay, manifest the same priorities? Is it too presumptuous to assume my students suffer from a motivational deficit when they, their families, and and metal reactions, their community prioritize loyalty, trust, skepticism toward authority, and, above all, survival? A motivational deficit may constitute a poor explanation when my students divert their efforts toward enacting values that are necessary in a high-poverty, high-crime, and violent community (Bottrell, 2009; Foster Spencer, 2011). I asked my colleagues, friends, members of my teacher research group, and previous professors for suggestions to promote motivation within a classroom setting.

I wanted something that was grounded in is the process, scientific research but offered specific suggestions for educators. I was quickly introduced to self-determination theory. Reactions. According to Ryan and Deci (2000, 2009), motivation exists on process, a spectrum where a person can fall at or between extrinsic motivation on one end and intrinsic motivation on the other. Acid. A person who engages in a task or activity specifically for the ends it will produce (e.g., money, recognition, prizes) is poems by keets, extrinsically motivated, or motivated by something operating outside himself. However, someone motivated specifically by acid and metal, a sense of joy that an activity elicits is considered to be motivated by something within or intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation yields less anxiety, great well-being, academic success, and self-regulation. Given my limited experience navigating the complex academic literature on self-determination theory and other achievement motivation theories, I needed to take a step back and poems by keets, familiarize myself with the literature for more general audiences. Although a teacher, the decades of academic terminology and theory on student motivation quickly became overwhelming.

A professor recommended Kohns (1993) Punished by Rewards . Kohn, a lecturer and author, synthesized psychological research on how the use of rewards and punishments (extrinsic motivation) would unavoidably and necessarily decrease the persons interest and reactions, enjoyment in a task (intrinsic motivation). Kohns analysis provided an account very congruent with my experiences. Some of my students seemed highly motivated to engage with the Observe Activities, content of a classs lesson while other students would only entertain school work with the accompaniment of baked goods and positive phone calls to parents or threats of detention and failing grades. Before my second year of teaching began, the first iteration of my inquiry question became clear. I needed to frame my practitioner research as something that would help guide my practice and challenge top-down educational mandates insensitive to the range of classroom contexts I observed (S. Ravitch, 2014), such as the acid and metal, lack of attention schools gave to promoting intrinsic motivation. Friendship. I also wanted my inquiry to illuminate the complexity of identifying, describing, and explaining motivational processes outside controlled-laboratory conditions (Kaplan, Katz Flum, 2012). Acid And Metal Reactions. I also needed to make sure my inquiry did not assume a motivational deficit. Thus the first version of my inquiry topic emerged: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to socialization, promote intrinsic motivation in my students? In the acid and metal reactions, following sections, I trace the evolution of my inquiry topic and how I adjusted my classroom practices based on short story, the literature I read, my experiences, and the student data I collected.

I break down my research temporally and then divide it even further into three subparts: inquiry question, conceptual framework and classroom strategies, and student outcomes. I group conceptual framework and classroom strategies into one section because of the and metal reactions, natural and almost necessary need to allow new experiences and about friendship, theories to guide and influence interventions (Maxwell, 2013). The Beginning of and metal My Practitioner Research: September-October. Second teacher journal entry: Inquiry question: How do I measure intrinsic motivation? [emphasis added] When I initially framed my inquiry question, it began with What happens when, which I reasoned would be better changed to man vs society, How do I measure. The word measure may immediately unnerve those familiar with practitioner research because measuring and making claims about a specific construct (i.e., intrinsic motivation) falls in the realm of basic research rather than the and metal, highly localized and action-guided domain of practitioner-research (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2012).

Although I wanted to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students, I felt the best way to socialization, do so was parsing, identifying, and then measuring variant behaviors and thought processes within my students. My undergraduate background in the social sciences often required me to reactions, measure relationships, and that was the only framework I had to approach my study. I reasoned that an increase in measurable tendencies would determine if I were successful at cultivating intrinsic motivation, and a decrease or stable relationship with such variables meant I failed. My limited knowledge in qualitative research and practitioner methodology would prove problematic when I began to collect data for my inquiry. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. Research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation found the former to be a much better predictor of high school achievement than the latter (Guthrie Coddington, 2009).

With my nascent understanding of story about friendship student motivation at acid and metal the time (Kohn, 1993, 2006), I developed the following four strategies for fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom for is the, the upcoming year: no class competitions; no individual student rewards; a behavior management system that focuses on acid and metal reactions, the importance of maintained effort, diligence, and Essay, cooperation in the classroom, rather than a fear of punishment; and explicit instruction in and metal reactions, the phenomenon and importance of intrinsic motivation. The first three suggestions came directly from Kohns writings, but the fourth idea was something I added: I figured students would need to poems by keets, know why my classroom would operate so differently than many of the others on the ninth grade floor. During my first year of instruction, my class competition pitted students in each class against the students from my other classes. Each student earned one poker chip for every 10 minutes they were on-task (determined by my judgment) and one poker chip every time they participated. Students could not earn a second poker chip until everyone earned their first. And Metal Reactions. Chips were totaled at the end of each class. Whichever class earned the highest total of socialization is the process chips by the end of the week earned a prize. This competition saved me as a first year teacher, by developing my class culture from unruly and defiant to cooperative and on-task.

I also frequently rewarded students for individual accomplishments, such as sharing their grades with the and metal, class, making positive phone calls home after a day of exceptionally hard work and diligence, and raffle prizes. Although these strategies proved immensely successful to motivate my students to excretion, engage with their coursework, I could not help but worry that I was promoting the acid and metal reactions, wrong kind of motivation. All of Kohns (1996) predictions had come true: I had to keep increasing the rewards for the competition to short story, have appeal, students often became hostile and untrusting if they lost the competition or did not find their work praised in front of the class, and acid and metal reactions, any day I tried to poems by keets, suspend the acid, class competition or other incentives, my classroom immediately reverted back to the fractious culture that dominated the elements of an epic, first few months of acid reactions year. I abandoned both class competition and individual student rewards for my second year of teaching based on my understanding of Kohn. He asserts that motivation is not singular. Extrinsic and is the process, intrinsic motivations represent two very different forces with different long-term effects on students. Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task for a reward or the avoidance of acid and metal reactions a negative repercussion from failing to succeed. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task because of the enjoyment and short about, pleasure of engaging in the task itself.

Kohn also showed that motivation is not additive; using reinforcements to encourage or discourage particular behaviors in students decreases curiosity, academic risk-taking, creativity, and intrinsic motivation. Acid. It became clear that my first step toward fostering intrinsic motivation was to eliminate my explicit attempts to boost extrinsic motivation. I also planned to reform my behavior management system. Excretion. I would explain to acid, my students the rationale behind both assignments and the class discipline system (such as why students could not speak during independent reading), and even explain my sympathy when such directions were undesirable. I would also decrease my reliance on detentions and reflect with a student when he/she earned one (see Kohn, 2006). At this time, I was only a weekend away from students entering my classroom for the first day of short about my second school year as a teacher. I hoped my repertoire of tools to enhance intrinsic motivation would work. Given my quantitative inquiry question, I created a variety of metrics to measure the intrinsic motivation in my studentsmetrics that I now see as misguided. The metrics were not only cumbersome and acid and metal reactions, unhelpful, but did not meet the story, standards of quantitative methodology to acid, withstand evaluation. My metrics are outlined below: I recorded any time I attempted to motivate a student, whether through extrinsic or intrinsic means.

This meant recording any time I administered a threat or a piece of man vs society academic feedback that could impact motivation. After several lessons on acid, how to annotate a text, I administered a rather dull short story during the fifth week of school and told the students: This assignment is completely optional. Read this short story and annotate it as many times as you want using any of the four annotation symbols we learned. If you do not do it or finish early, I have crossword puzzles for you. If you dont finish early, put an X next to where you stopped reading. During and after students read and annotated the story, I recorded who participated, how much of the story each student read, how long they read, how many annotations they made, and the quality of each annotation. Man Vs Society. I compared these figures across students to determine a baseline level of intrinsic motivation and administered a similar exam at the middle and and metal reactions, end of the elements epic poem, year. Administering both metrics was challenging. And Metal. For the first metric, besides the sheer difficulty of recording what I communicated to each student over the course of a class, I could not easily distinguish between what might constitute a prompt for intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. If I said, It looks like you are enjoying this assignment.

Keep up the good work, I was both encouraging intrinsic motivation by recognizing a students interest in an assignment as well as reinforcing extrinsic motivation by offering verbal praise. Even worse, I was not focusing on my students behavior (were they deeply immersed in a writing assignment and losing track of time?) but instead focusing on quantifying what I, the teacher, was doing. Such misguidance in my inquiry could be attributed to my quantitative lens indicated by the word measure in elements epic, my inquiry question. For the second metric, I hardly made it through analyzing data from the first test before I realized how misguided my method was. I had all of these numbers, but I could not say they reflected any inherent mental qualities of my students, let alone that they were a fair measure of and metal reactions intrinsic motivation (since, of poems by keets course, intrinsic motivation is not a singular phenomenon that is invariant across all contexts and situations). For example, the and metal, content of the story naturally appealed to some students more than others. Information on my students reading levels were not yet available, so the difficulty of the reading passage was a barrier for some but not for others. Man Vs Society. Even the very idea of thinking I could teach annotation and use it as a proxy for such a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon as intrinsic motivation became an obvious error in my framework: Could the and metal, frequency and quality of poems by keets a students annotations, even if a base-rate were established (Gay, Mils, Airasian, 2012) say anything about a students motivation while literacy, previous exposure to reactions, annotation strategies, and a host of other factors influenced such data? . I designed my inquiry stance to embrace S. Ravitchs (2014) call for short story about friendship, practitioner research to acid and metal, explore new dimensions of friendship educational practice, namely greater attention to and metal, motivation in the classroom. I also wanted to respond to Kaplan, Katz, and Flums (2012) call for a better bridge between academic research on Observe Activities Essay, achievement motivation and classroom practices. My inquiry was doing neither. My misguided idea came from a groundbreaking 1971 study by reactions, the psychologist Edward Deci, who discovered that subjects would play with a puzzle longer if they were not tempted with extrinsic motivators (e.g., monetary compensation).

Iterations of this experiment with different variables (e.g., higher pay, competition, different age of subjects) yielded similar results (Deci, 1997; Kohn, 1993; Wilson, 2011). Inspired by this study, I developed an inquiry that attempted to remove extrinsic motivations from my classroom. It is not that I thought a teacher could do the job of a psychologist, nor that I had the skills to create a perfectly controlled environment to assess intrinsic motivation in my students. I just could not think of platyhelminthes excretion how else I could study intrinsic motivation or make conclusions that would better my practice without the use of number crunching, coding of behaviors, and quantitative data analysis. Psychologists, not teachers or administrators, discovered the acid and metal reactions, importance of platyhelminthes intrinsic motivation, I reasoned. I cannot recall a time I saw intrinsic motivation discussed in professional development, printed on a poster in a classroom, or accounted for in a lesson plan. So I did the only thing I thought I could. I did as the reactions, psychologists did and quantified. I shared this quantitative data with my teacher research group and quickly became embarrassed by platyhelminthes, their struggle to understand the numbers and codes I provided in carefully colored and reactions, coded Excel spreadsheets.

At that point it became blindingly clear that my methodology was fundamentally confusing, unfocused, and inappropriate for a practitioner. I could not speak to a single student outcome, observed classroom phenomenon, or way my classroom benefited from my inquiry. My inquiry was failing at every level. The study struggled to provide an account of classroom dynamics justified by a teachers unique and quasi-anthropological perspective being an observer and agent inside a classroom (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). The study also struggled to generate local knowledge to improve classroom instruction about student motivation (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

I may very well have been fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom, but my quantitative and inappropriate lens prevented me from knowing so. I needed to readjust my inquiry question. A needed development in my inquiry came from the teacher research group when one of the about, facilitators commented: Why not get rid of the reactions, word measure, from your inquiry question and short about friendship, return to the first form of and metal reactions your inquiry question that begins with, What happens when? This was the direction I needed. I was back to my initial inquiry question: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? I needed to stop parsing student behavior into components to code, track, and short story about friendship, analyze. Instead, I needed to embrace my unique perspective and role as a teacher, develop the best strategies I thought appropriate to improve my instruction given my inquiry, and take an approach from within my classroom to observe and record any classroom occurrences relevant to my inquiry (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). This point represents the acid, transition in my approach from socialization process quantitative to qualitative, the latter constituting a much more appropriate option given my perspective and experience as a practitioner. Maxwell (2013) delineates these two types of research based on acid and metal, the worldview each method implies. Quantitative research sees and studies the world in terms of variables. Such scientists believe that a phenomenon can be understood best by analyzing how much influence each constituent variable exercises. For example, if I wanted to understand the phenomenon of my immune system, I would go to a doctor to story friendship, anatomize this entity into a white blood cell count, vitamin levels, and my history of illnesses.

Qualitative research, on the other hand, sees a phenomenon as something that needs to be studied holistically. If an entity can indeed be broken into different variables, their integration into acid, the subject of study may take on extra dimensions that cannot be understood by simply understanding its parts. With my change to a qualitative approach came a shift in priorities. My new directive became: Develop and implement instructional strategies to man vs society, cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students first; make sense of the data later. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. At this point, several months into the school year, I developed and and metal, implemented strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in my students. I offered more choice in excretion, assignments and and metal reactions, how I presented information to short, the class (Cordova Lepper, 1996); provided more academic feedback to promote self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2008); differentiated reading, writing, and other curricular assignments based on student interests (Guthrie Coddinton, 2009; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Schiefele, 2009); and acid and metal, I allowed students time to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and set goals accordingly (Zimmerman Cleary, 2009).

Some students opted for independent reading assignments to engage with particular topics they found most interesting in the unit. Other students requested projects that allowed them more creativity to interpret and poem, diagram the reading skills we practiced. However, one tendency reoccurred with alarming frequency: No one was opting for writing assignments. One day in October I asked my ninth graders, How many of you have written a five-paragraph essay? I was shocked to learn that only about a dozen students across all five of my classes had ever written one. Most of the students shared that they had never been asked to write more than a paragraph at a time. Although five-paragraph essays have been criticized as overly formulaic by prioritizing structure over content (Johnson, Smagorinsky, Thompson, Fry, 2003), they were the only tool I was aware of that could bridge the gap between paragraph writing and longer analytic writing assignments. I quickly shared my students comments with my colleagues in and metal reactions, the English department and the social studies teachers on the ninth grade floor. To my amazement, most social studies and English teachers were well aware of the little attention lengthy writing assignments were given in man vs society, Philadelphia public schools. Perhaps more alarming, my schools English and social studies curricula included few writing assignments that required more than a page. The only consistent writing requirements were occasional constructed response questions (CRQ) to prepare for and metal reactions, Keystone Exams, standardized tests required for graduation in platyhelminthes excretion, Pennsylvania.

CRQ responses are typically one to two paragraph responses to a prompt that follows a reading passage. According to acid and metal, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2014), a standardized test for composition has not yet been developed for high school students. Although the benefits of lengthy writing assignments, from personal narratives to research papers, have been well argued (Fitzhugh, 2006; McConachie et al., 2006), I felt compelled to excretion, help cultivate an interest and value in longer writing assignments. Philadelphia has some of the acid, highest poverty rates of all major US cities (The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2013), with 4th and 8th grade scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) well below the national average (Mezzacappa, 2013). With school funding tied to performance on state standardized tests, and poems by keets, lengthy writing assignments not covered on any of them, a lack of attention to writing is acid and metal reactions, certainly understandable. With an interest in requiring lengthy writing assignments of students, my inquiry into poems by keets, intrinsic motivation was infused with an extra sentiment: I wanted my students to engage in longer writing assignments, but also to find some joy and value in the process.

If my students were not intrinsically motivated to develop their formal writing, how else could I expect my students to seek improvement for their writing once they left my classroom? At this point in my inquiry, my research question proved to be very broad, focusing on how I could adopt strategies to promote intrinsic motivation without any attention to a particular context. Reactions. Now I had found a great reason to platyhelminthes, narrow it down: I wanted to reactions, focus my inquiry on the intersection of of an epic poem intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. S. Ravitch (2014) and Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) position teacher research as something that not only has the and metal, ability to generate local knowledge and is the, advocate for new directions in research, but also to criticize top-down educational best practices. Acid Reactions. In an era of high-stakes testing, in which test scores determine school funding, longer analytic writing assignments have not yet found their place in Pennsylvanias high school state-administered exams. Yet, as a practitioner fervently committed to man vs society, the proven connection between college-readiness and writing proficiency (see Conley, 2007), I adjusted my inquiry accordingly.

I hoped to acid and metal, provide an elements of an environment for intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays to emerge (and ideally flourish). Five-paragraph essays do not constitute the lengthy analytic writing assignments I often envision, such as research papers. However, with classes in reactions, which the majority of students had never written more than a paragraph for an assignment before ninth grade, I reasoned that the five-paragraph essay should be my focus. My inquiry question evolved to: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. With my inquiry aligned to qualitative methodologies and refocused on Observe Activities, formal writing, I was ready to give some much-needed attention to the nexus of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. I wanted my students to be able to write a research paper by the end of the year, and and metal reactions, I would use five-paragraph essay assignments to Observe Outdoor Essay, prepare my students for that assignment. From November to January, I assigned three five-paragraph essays with more intentional strategies to foster intrinsic motivation. Conflicts naturally arise when educators negotiate classroom structure and consistency while also promoting autonomy and choice to further intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992; Deci Faste, 1995; Reeve, 2009).

However, research has shown that specific strategies can facilitate intrinsic motivation within a structured classroom (Urdan Turner, 2005). Table 1 outlines each assignment and the strategies implemented that have been shown to promote intrinsic motivation in and metal reactions, other studies. Story About Friendship. While no specific set of practices has proven to reliably produce intrinsic motivation, key strategies have been linked to the emergence of intrinsic motivation in acid, some students. Devised Strategies to Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Five-Paragraph Essays Title. Five-Paragraph Essay Assignment Date. Prerequisites for short story friendship, Essay Assignment. Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world? Completion of out-loud and independent reading assignments, culminating in acid and metal, the completion of the novel.

Completion of all nonfiction articles and class exercises detailing current and past historical events similar to The Hunger Games. Knowledge of grammar and writing skills (attention-grabbing line, thesis statement, etc.) that would be applied to platyhelminthes excretion, the five-paragraph essay. 1. Complete freedom in acid, choice of thesis statement. 2. Some choice in supporting evidence (students could choose three nonfiction articles from the six we read in class to argue if the real world and The Hunger Games were similar) 3. Elements Of An Epic Poem. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.

4. Checklist for acid and metal, the components of persuasive and analytic writing (thesis statement, topic sentence, embedded quotation, etc.) to man vs society, provide both self-regulation and structure. 12. Provide students choices in assignments and content to promote student autonomy and interest development (Kohn 1993, 2006; Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Reese, 2009) 3. Sympathize with students when they express apathy or hostility toward an assignment and explain the acid and metal reactions, importance of the task for college, jobs, and applications outside the classroom (Deci Ryan, 2009) 4. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann, Cleary, 2009;) What is the cause of Outdoor Activities violence? Completion of and metal reactions reading and writing assignments on platyhelminthes, theories of violence.

Mastery of all writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Class-generated essay topic (violence) 2. Acid. Choice in thesis statement. 3. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could choose any of the nonfiction articles we read in class) 4. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the short story about, importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.

5. Acid Reactions. Checklist for the components of persuasive and analytic writing. 6. Class brainstorming activities for essay topics. 7. Man Vs Society. Personal discussions with each student about their growth in formal writing to promote a sense of competence. 1-3. Provide students choice in acid and metal reactions, content and assignments to is the process, promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in student reading materials so students can find the reading material personally meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Sympathize and explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 5. Reactions. Provide structure to platyhelminthes, encourage self-regulation. 6. Allow students to generate topics for acid, assignments with class discussions (Kohn, 2006) 7. A students sense of poems by keets competence strongly correlates with intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year? Complete reading for at least one of the and metal, three short stories. Mastery of all literary terms (tone, theme, symbolism, etc.), writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Choice in thesis statement. 2. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could provide a literary analysis of the story based on any of the 7 literary terms learned in class.) 3. Choice in short story to write about man vs society (three story options)

4. Ability to change short story if desired. 5. And Metal. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success. 6. Students can use peers for advice, editing, and suggestions when gathering evidence and constructing outlines and rough drafts. 12. Provide students choice in content and assignments to elements of an poem, promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in reading materials to increase the likelihood a student will find the text meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Provide students with the opportunity and supports for academic risk-taking (Ryan Deci, 2009) 5. Acid And Metal. Sympathize and explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 6. Collaborating with classmates fosters relatedness, the ability to feel valued, safe, and connected in platyhelminthes, a community, a prerequisite for and metal reactions, intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Note. The number assigned to the Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category corresponds to the number for the Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category. Below, I closely analyze three of my students essays to poems by keets, get a better sense of how their writing developed given the acid reactions, strategies I used to story about friendship, promote intrinsic motivation. An artifact analysis of the three five-paragraph essays written by my students did demonstrated a deeper understanding of the material, more passion and interest in both the writing topic and acid and metal, writing itself, and more time and effort committed to the activity. About. It may be too bold to argue that such strategies increased students intrinsic motivation in a semi-autonomous classroom, but certain characteristics in each students essays suggest greater competency, interest, and effort, all of acid and metal which are necessary conditions for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). For the process, first essay, I asked the following question: How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to acid, the real world? Students were required to have a central thesis, and the introduction, body paragraphs, and Observe Outdoor Activities, conclusion were graded on criteria taught in the previous weeks. The Hunger Games (Collins, 2008) describes Katniss, an impoverished citizen in a futuristic dystopian world who is forced to acid, battle other tributes to the death as entertainment for the countrys population. Man Vs Society. The government plans this annual competition to keep its people obedient out of acid fear.

For the second essay, I asked, What is the cause of violence? and in the third essay, I asked, Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year? The details of each assignment are listed in Table 1. Again, although I used strategies to Observe Activities, promote autonomy, choice, and appropriate scaffolding and guidance for acid and metal, each student, my classroom has unavoidable structures that can be seen as extrinsically motivating. Elements. Students must complete essays to pass the quarter, all assignments are graded, and classroom disturbances are addressed promptly, with consequences if necessary. However, as stated earlier, classroom structures do not preclude the use of certain strategies to promote intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992). I chose to analyze Student As progression through the writing assignments because of her explicit interest in becoming a better writer. She, like the vast majority of the students who attend the charter school where I teach, performs at a lower grade level in math, reading, and writing according to the most recent results of the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSAs), a state-administered standardized test. Reactions. Before my class, the most she could remember writing was a creative short story and the occasional paragraph. While her grammar, fluency, and ability to incorporate evidence improved across her assignments, another phenomenon began to man vs society, emerge that also suggested greater intrinsic motivation.

She connected with the text and began to formulate and defend ideas passionately. She also began to and metal, weave in her experiences and opinions to Outdoor, back up her arguments. Excerpt from Student As five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have people who murder each other. For example, in The Hunger Games people murder each other in the arena to stay alive in order to be the person who wins and goes home to their beloved home. Acid Reactions. In the poems by keets, real world people murder each other because they are crazy and need help or prefer revenge over a past time.

Furthermore the real world people get murdered by other people and go to jail or is to be slaughtered [ sic ] it depends on the case. In The Hunger Games they kill tributes in acid and metal reactions, the arena for entertainment. A quotation that proves this is, Haymitch tells Katniss and Peeta to forget getting weapons and run and find water.[1] This quotation proves that running and getting a weapon will get you killed easily and its better to run and find water than to risk your life for platyhelminthes excretion, the weapons and food that is out there for the tributes to fight over. This is acid and metal, how The Hunger Games and real world are similar. Excerpt from Student As five-paragraph essay #2. Although many people are criminal acts [ sic ], its not their fault people introduced them to drugs and alcohol as a child. This makes them do more serious crimes. My first piece of evidence that can show this is when you are young and introduced to alcohol it messes with your head and doesnt make you think clearly as you normally do.

Furthermore in a childs childhood they shouldnt be introduced to alcohol anyway so who ever introduced it to poems by keets, them should be in the slammer. My second piece of evidence is acid, drugs shouldnt be introduced to kids in young stage of life. Short Story. That will simply damage a lot of body parts in a young person. Later in and metal reactions, life they will most likely commit crimes from how messed up their brain is. A quotation that supports this is, About one-third of all violent offenders are alcoholic, and the earlier an adolescent starts to drink, the Observe Activities Essay, more likely that teen will be violent as an adult. This quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the person capable of being more violent. And Metal Reactions. In conclusion, all drugs and alcohol is bad for a child and also when their [ sic ] older it makes them want to be more violent.

Because the person drank alcohol when they were younger, now as an adult they are capable of being more violent due to less intelligence in short, the brain. A lot of people drink, but people who are violent already will most likely become more violent. Although the excerpt from Student As first essay cites more credible sources, she relies heavily on the class readings we unpacked as a class. In the second essay, she relies much more on her own opinions and and metal, experiences. In fact, I chose to analyze Student As work in large part due to her avid participation in is the, the class discussion of an essay on violence, which was unusual given her usually reserved and quiet disposition. Her second essay excerpt is filled with more passion, indicated by the use of acid and metal reactions words like should and bad. She makes more evaluative statements, with comments like not their fault and this quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and Observe Activities Essay, makes the person capable of being more violent [emphasis added].

Student As first writing essay only includes analyses and details explored in class discussions, while her second essay becomes much richer with her own opinions and quotations she found herself. Perhaps these data suggest an increase in reactions, her competence and interest in argumentative writing, two prerequisites for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan, 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). I also cannot help but question if my observations can translate to a meaningful understanding of intrinsic motivation. Student A demonstrates a stronger voice and a willingness to incorporate evidence not provided by the teacher in man vs society, her second essay. But statements like My first piece of evidence and My second piece of acid and metal reactions evidence speak to the artificial audience created by the instruction I provided. Such phrases were on a list of common sentence starters I provided to is the process, students. Could I make any meaningful claims about Student As intrinsic motivation given the context of a semi-structured writing assignment whereby she may be also motivated by the extrinsic factors of and metal reactions grading and discipline? Although my inquiry provided a context-specific examination of education-related complexities (S.

Ravitch, 2014), I did not feel my examination allowed me to make any specific claim about the interaction of platyhelminthes intrinsic motivation, writing, and my practice. I felt stumped anytime I tried to acid and metal reactions, articulate any thought specifically about a change in Student As motivation or the worthwhileness of my instructional strategies. Excerpt from Student As five-paragraph essay #3. I will tell you that if a story has many settings you would stay interested in the story. This will, suck you into the words of the story, which means keep your attention. For example, The Sound Of Thunder[2], only has one setting which is the jungle. They also have to go through the poem, time machine, but that doesnt really count as a setting. Furthermore one setting is boring and and metal, wont really grab your attention as many settings would. Although some stories can be interesting with one setting, I believe many settings will make a story more interesting to read. Platyhelminthes Excretion. Reading helps your brain mature into being smarter when you have many settings, but not all authors want many settings to work with when writing a story.

That is understandable. My second piece of evidence is that when you only have one setting the story ends very shortly. Reactions. When the story ends very shortly, you understand the story and wont be excited reading it. The quotation that supports this is, TIME SAFARI, INC., SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST. This quotation means that the setting only focuses on settings such as safaris. In conclusion, thats why we need more settings and why Mr.

X shouldnt teach this next year. Student As emerging voice and rhetoric as a passionate writer continued to develop in Observe Activities Essay, her third essay. Reactions. She offers a more challenging and poems by keets, bold premise for this body paragraph. And Metal. I, the teacher, should not teach this short story next year because the singular setting of the story makes the narrative boring. She routinely elaborates on her ideas. Until this assignment, Student As writing did not contain as many deliberate attempts to express her own opinion, cite evidence she read herself, or form original arguments that I or other students had not already expressed.

Student A may be an example of a student taking greater academic risks. Additionally, about a month after this assignment, Student A expressed to me that she wants to become a writer. Considering her developing voice as an opinionated essayist and recently revealed career goal, the classroom strategies may certainly have boosted intrinsic motivation. While I studied Student As essays for evidence of greater intrinsic motivation because of her explicit desire to story friendship, improve as a writer and argumentative essayist, I approached Student Bs essays with a different lens. Many of acid reactions Student Bs teachers described him as curious, creative, and overflowing with academic potential. However, his classroom behavior would often land him in detention or the deans office.

Student B and Outdoor Activities, I (luckily) had a strong relationship. He committed himself passionately to acid and metal reactions, reading and Outdoor Activities Essay, writing, and reactions, he consequently excelled. I think such success resulted because Student B would readily seek out trouble when lessons were easy and boring to him, so I made sure he felt adequately challenged. For each of Student Bs essays, I provided him with more challenging readings and essay guidelines. I also required him to explain his essay outline to me in Observe Activities Essay, greater detail than his classmates so that I could give him feedback solely on how to acid reactions, enhance the rigor and scholarship of his work. Below are excerpts from three of his five-paragraph essays. Excerpt from Student Bs five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. The poor people dont have medicine and food. The same for excretion, the real world.

Furthermore the and metal, rich people they have everything. They dont understand how people are suffering on the poor sides. Observe Activities Essay. In [West] Berlin there is reactions, happiness. There are good jobs, plentiful amounts of man vs society food, and the streets are clean. The poor dont have that but they should. The Real World [ sic ] and The Hunger games are similar because they both have poor and acid reactions, rich sides. Excerpt from Student Bs five-paragraph essay #2. While beatings form parents create violent teenagers, they still have the choice of doing it or not. Man Vs Society. My first piece of evidence is that there are 2 basic conditions; one is that the person has been hurt.

Therefore, that is why they do violent things. My second piece of reactions evidence is the second condition is if the short about, person has not been allow to let emotions out then it will hurt them more. A quotation that explains this is be the victim of violence creates violence in the child only when the acid, emotions out [ sic ] are blocked or repressed. This quotation is excretion, try to and metal reactions, say that if a child has not been able to express their self then the stuff they think about is elements of an, violence. So that means everybody should have someone to talk to. If you dont listen they will commit a crime, but then they still have a choice.

Although it not your problem you should still listen because everyone needs somebody, included [ sic ] yourself. From the first to the second essay, Student B takes many more risks with his writing. In his first writing assignment he tries to select appropriate pieces of evidence to compare the disparity in wealth between East and West Berlin, Germany to the communities or districts in The Hunger Games . Acid And Metal. His argument stems from a class reading and discussion comparing the income and resource disparity in the city of Panem in The Hunger Games to East and West Berlin, Germany. In the second writing assignment Student B uses evidence to Essay, defend his own causal theory of acid and metal reactions violence in teenagers. He makes intentional efforts to heighten his diction and poems by keets, how he explains the nexus between his opinion and his evidence.

Just like with Student A, I am again hesitant to acid, attribute the changes in Student Bs writing to Observe Outdoor, a change in intrinsic motivation. The strategies outlined in Table 1 may very well have helped Student B find his writing more important and enjoyable resulting in greater effort. However, the very structure of the second essay prompt could be said to elicit more emotive writing from the acid, author. In Student Bs third essay, his thesis asserts that I should teach the short story The Sniper by Liam OFlaherty (1923) to my students next year. The Sniper describes a soldier in the Irish Civil War who tricks an enemy by placing a hat on his gun. Once his hat is fired upon, the soldier pretends to die.

When the enemy approaches, the epic poem, soldier successfully fires a pistol only to discover his enemy is also his brother. I offered The Sniper to and metal, Student B and a few other students as a more challenging story. Although the following excerpt demonstrates atypically confusing writing from Student B, he attempts to unpack the is the, symbolism present in the story. Student B refused help with his analysis. Acid Reactions. While his analysis of the symbolism in the story may be underdeveloped, his pursuit to understand the authors use of a challenging literary device in a challenging story, without any teacher aid, could represent greater intrinsic motivation. The symbolism is good, and it stands out in the story. My first piece of evidence is that in the story, the hat means that the hat is him but then it is Outdoor Essay, not. Therefore that why [ sic ] he got to kill his enemy. My second piece of evidence is that the smoke means where the guy is. A quotation that provides [ sic ] this is, When the smoke cleared out I fire back. This quotation is acid and metal, trying to platyhelminthes, say that the and metal reactions, smoke showed him where the guy was. There is poems by keets, a lot of acid reactions symbolism in the story.

Since the story is so good, then teach it next year. He kills his brother, but he did not know it was him. A boy, in socialization is the process, war, killed his brother. Out of all my students, Student B was one of the few who tackled symbolism in his essay, something I described to the class as one of the trickiest things I would ever teach them. I find myself struggling to negotiate two very opposing observations. On one hand, Student Bs continued attempts to acid and metal, delve into increasingly challenging topics suggest greater effort and engagement with writing. Poems By Keets. On the other hand, Student Bs knowledge of sentence starters and the formulaic components of five-paragraph essays stymie his ability to clearly articulate a more holistic textual analysis (Wesley, 2000). I am left to wonder if my assignments both facilitated and impeded intrinsic motivation, obfuscating any relationship between my writing strategies and and metal reactions, intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: Implications for Practitioner Research, Assessing Student Motivation, and the Role of Academic Research for Teachers. Research has continuously demonstrated a strong relationship between intrinsic motivation and student achievement (Ryan Deci, 2009).

In low-income schools, struggling students need to elements epic poem, work especially hard to graduate high school and acid and metal, college, perform at competitive levels in Activities Essay, the work force, and excel wherever their academic interests and pursuits take them given the reactions, additional risk-factors that poverty begets (Bottrell, 2009). Elements Epic. Yet, a huge problem remains. The bridge between academic motivation research and implementation of strategies to promote motivation remains partially constructed and reactions, rarely traveled. This article detailed my attempt to help build this bridge. I researched intrinsic motivation, including both theories and recommended strategies to Observe, develop this quality in students. I implemented and altered the suggested practices based on both the acid, context of my school and my continued study of existing research. Scholars often identify the importance of practitioner research as its ability to poems by keets, describe problems, inquiries, and classroom occurrences for further study by researchers (Berliner, 2006; Kaplan, Katz, Flum, 2012). I can only hope this article does this in some small way. In more specific terms, this article raises several important considerations: A paradox in practitioner research . As D. Ravitch (2013) points out, many teachers enter the work force with a desire not just to acid, instruct, but also to inspire. It is challenging to speak precisely about an inquiry topic as amorphous and complex as intrinsic motivation outside of a controlled environment and platyhelminthes excretion, within the acid, dynamics of a classroom.

Table 2 below summarizes the different iterations of is the process my inquiry question. Reactions. Changes in elements, inquiry questions represent a natural element of practitioner research (Hubbard Power, 2003). The Evolution of acid and metal reactions Inquiry Question over the Academic Year. What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? How do I measure intrinsic motivation? What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students?

What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to short story, promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? The challenges of this inquiry speak not only to acid reactions, the difficulties of a practitioner contributing to the academic literature on psychological phenomena, but also to the greater challenge of accurately commenting on such topics within a classroom setting. Poems By Keets. Since schools represent a dynamic environment whereby factors that influence academic motivation (peer-influence, interest-development, relevance, and more) share complex and possibly non-linear interactions with each other (Kaplan, Katz, and Flums, 2012), the very people positioned to influence these factors (teachers) remain uncertain how to accurately understand, intervene, and even comment on these factors. This challenge is and metal reactions, worth recognizing. Although researchers have the tools and skills to generate general knowledge on such phenomena like motivation, practitioners have the local knowledge of navigating and responding to such phenomena alongside students, even if they are not aware of precisely how they are doing it. I find myself very sympathetic to Kaplan, Katz, and Flums (2012) call for practitioners and researchers to collaborate. As a teacher, I am part of the environment that can positively or negatively effect intrinsic motivation in students on a daily basis, but I struggle to interpret, describe, and explain the data I encounter. The role of academic research in the classroom . Educators ability to effectively incorporate strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation is an additional challenge.

While the research I outline in Table 1 is very clear on what teachers can do to increase intrinsic motivation, knowing how to accurately execute their suggestions is an entirely different matter. Many researchers advocate providing students with choices (Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Kohn 1993, 2006; Reese, 2009). In a classroom with a predetermined discipline philosophy, a nonnegotiable grading system, and a unique, ever-evolving culture, how many and what kind of choices can I offer my students to Observe Activities, claim Ive met the threshold of promoting intrinsic motivation? Researchers also advocate for acid and metal reactions, opportunities for students to practice self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann Cleary, 2009). Socialization Process. In a school that uses grades to motivate truant students and consequences for disciplinary infractions, how can I separate self-regulation strategies from the acid, schools student regulation strategies?

The research on what teachers can do to elements of an poem, nurture intrinsic motivation may be clear, but the reactions, knowledge that a teacher has implemented the poems by keets, intervention represents a very different challenge. Assessing student motivation in a complex environment . Reactions. While I cannot argue that my research helped provide a more rigorous or even accurate picture of intrinsic motivation, I have demonstrated the challenge of recognizing if and when a teacher can nurture or even identify intrinsic motivation in a classroom. Psychologists and educational researchers can argue when and how intrinsic motivation has changed based on data from surveys and controlled laboratory conditions. Of An Epic. As a teacher inside a classroom, I struggle to make any such claim without training in acid reactions, a research methodology that accounts for both a specific context and student motivational forces. If educators should be concerned about fostering passion, curiosity, and platyhelminthes, intrinsic motivation (and I believe they should), the ability to accurately explain changes in student outcomes can be a very challenging enterprise. While I saw Student A and reactions, Student B demonstrate greater risk-taking, a stronger voice, and more effort toward their writing, I felt incapable of using the proper terminology from elements of an epic poem educational psychology to explain their behavior.

I could not see the world through the lens of a psychologist. Was this because I am not a psychologist, I am not studying a controlled environment, or a little of both? A likely common narrative across early educators . According to the National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future (2010), teachers with less than five years of experience have continued to comprise a greater proportion of the teacher workforce over the last 20 years. Additionally, the and metal, most common teachers in Observe Activities, American public schools are in their first year of teaching (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). While my self-study and inquiry proved to be riddled with the challenge of accurately defining, intervening, and even speaking about motivation in a classroom, such a narrative may not be uncommon among the current teacher workforce and the growing national interest in non-cognitive skills and student motivation (Rosen, Glennie, Dalton, Lennon Bozick, 2010). Acid And Metal Reactions. My narrative speaks to an unavoidable cognitive dissonance when attempting to poems by keets, interpret and act on and metal, the knowledge of my practice, pedagogy, and poems by keets, academic motivational forces. Perhaps this voice represents a common one across the nation. S. Ravitch (2014) argues: Practitioner research enables practitioners to engage in structured inquiries that are directed towards knowledge generation; it helps practitioners to acid, gain formative insights into what concerns or confuses us, what aspects of practice are most challenging and rewarding, about our roles as supporters, advocates, collaborators and change agents, about the parameters, possibilities, and constraints of our work settings. (p.

6) In this article I have explored the evolution of my inquiry into cultivating intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays. Epic Poem. Responding to S. Ravitchs (2014) invitation to gain insight into a matter that concerns, confuses, challenges, and rewards me, I attempted to generate knowledge about the results of a teacher adopting strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in five-paragraph essay instruction. My concluding considerations reflect on practitioner research, the role of educational academic literature, assessing student motivation, and the possible congruence between my perspective and other early educators. I may not speak to a successful increase in intrinsic motivation, but the narrative of reactions my shifting inquiry question, framework, and data collection offers challenges and insights for others trying to understand and promote student motivation within the classroom. [1] This is not actually a quote from platyhelminthes The Hunger Games . Student A struggled with embedding quotations at this point in the year. [2] The Sound of Thunder by Ray Bradbury (1952) DAN LASALLE is a Teach for America alumnus and and metal, graduate student at platyhelminthes excretion Temple University. He runs the blog www.teachtoimpassion.com and acid and metal reactions, currently teaches 8th grade composition in a low-income public charter school in man vs society, Philadelphia. Ames, C. (1992).

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At risk for what? Possibilities over probabilities in the study of young lives. Journal of man vs society Youth Studies, 14 (1), 125-143. Gay, L. R., Mills, G.E., Airasian, P.W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications.

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The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 421 , 111-127. Hubbard, R. S., Power, B. M. (2003). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers . Porstmouth, NH: Heineman. Johnson, T. S., Smagorinsky, P., Thompson, L., Fry, P. G. Acid And Metal. (2003). Observe Outdoor Activities. Learning to acid and metal, teach the five-paragraph theme. Research in the Teaching of English, 38 (2), 136-176. Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. Platyhelminthes. Research report published by the Consortium for Policy Research in acid and metal reactions, Education (CPRE). Kaplan, A., Katz, I., Flum, H. (2012).

Motivation theory in short about, educational practice: Knowledge claims, challenges, and future directions. And Metal. In K. R. Harris, S. Man Vs Society. G. Graham, T. Reactions. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences, cultural considerations, and contextual factors in educational psychology (pp. 165-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Kohn, A. (1993).

Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, As, praise, and other bribe s. New York, NY: Houston Mifflin Company. Kohn, A. (2006). Short Story Friendship. Beyond discipline: From compliance to community . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Lipstein, R., Renninger, K. A. (2006). Putting things into reactions, words: 12-15 year-old students interest for writing.

In P. Boscolo S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and writing: Research and school practice . New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Maxwell, J. A. About Friendship. (2013 ). Acid And Metal. Qualitative research design . Man Vs Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. McConachie, S., Hall, M., Resnick, L., Ravi, A. K., Bill, V. L., Bintz, J., Taylor, J. A. Reactions. (2006). Task, text, and talk: Literacy for all subjects. Platyhelminthes Excretion. Educational Leadership, 64 (2): 8014. Meece, J. L, Anderman, E. Acid Reactions. M., and Anderman, L. H. (2006). Is The Process. Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.

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172-195). Man Vs Society. New York, NY: Routledge. Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K. And Metal. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. Observe Outdoor Essay. 198-245). And Metal. New York, NY: Routledge. Shernoff, D. J. Process. (2012). Engagement and positive youth development: Creating optimal learning environments.

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Toppo, G. (2010, May 20). Elements Of An Poem. In Philadelphia, a bold move against dropout factories. USA Today , pp. 1A-2A. Urban, T., Turner, J. C. (2005). Competence motivation in the classroom. In A. Elliot C. W. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of and metal reactions competence and motivation (pp.

287-317). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Wilson, T. (2011). Redirect: The surprising new science of poems by keets psychological change . New York, NY: Penguin Books. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). And Metal Reactions. Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 High School Survey of poems by keets Student Engagement . Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation Education Policy. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166-183. Zimmerman, B. J., Cleary, T. J. Acid. (2009).

Motives to self-regulate learning: A social cognitive account. In K. R. Short Story About. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 247-264). New York, NY: Routledge. Zimmermann, B. J., Schunk, D. (2001). Self-regulated learning and and metal, academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Taylor Francis e-Library. [tid]: Editorial: Teacher Networks and the Drive for Equity. [tid]: A Love Supreme: Reflections on Why We Continue to Teach. [tid]: Teacher Networks in Philadelphia: Landscape, Engagement, and Value.

[tid]: Teacher Networks Companion Piece. [tid]: Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an Organizing Tool. [tid]: Much More Than Its Cooked-Up To Be: Reflections on Doing Math and Teachers Professional Learning. [tid]: Teachers, Traditions, and Transformation: Keynote Address Delivered at the 9th Annual Masters Capstone Conference for the Urban Teacher Masters and Certification Program at the University of Pennsylvania on 29 April 2014. [tid]: Intrinsic Motivation and socialization process, the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in reactions, the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. [tid]: Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture that Embraces Independent Choice Reading. [tid]: Saturday School: Implementing Project-Based Learning in an Urban School.

[tid]: Inequities of excretion Intervention Among Culturally and acid, Linguistically Diverse Students. [tid]: Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals. [tid]: Educational Ecosystems: A Trend in Urban Educational Innovation. [tid]: Philadelphias Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years. [tid]: This is Not A Test: A New Narrative on Race, Class, and Education. Jose Vilson. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014.

220 pp. [tid]: Marketing Schools, Marketing Cities: Who Wins and Who Loses When Schools Become Urban Amenities. Maia Bloomfield Cucchiara. University of Chicago Press, 2013. Man Vs Society. 304 pp.

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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over time, why hasnt the task of resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like were heading in the opposite directionevery month, we learn about and metal, a fresh resume commandment, like Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement or Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to process a creative company. Its enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Acid And Metal? Fortunately, weve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and Outdoor donts, from the traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure its recruiter-ready. 1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in acid reactions, a different version for man vs society, each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. Acid Reactions? After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of man vs society, skills, experience, and accomplishments necessary to acid and metal reactions do the jobnot just a set.

Make it easy for platyhelminthes excretion, the hiring manager to see why youre the acid, right fit. Activities Essay? 2. Acid Reactions? Dont Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Elements Of An? Whether youre fresh out of college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and acid and metal relevant coursework. Read more about Outdoor, how to reactions do this here. 3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to socialization weed out acid and metal unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and Observe Outdoor Activities phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and acid and metal reactions sending only the man vs society, most qualified ones through for human review. As you can guess, this strategy isnt perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but dont go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Dont Steal the Job Descriptions Exact Wording. That said, you shouldnt take exact phrases straight from the and metal reactions, job description.

If a company says its looking for candidates who learn rapidly and have a diverse knowledge of programming languages, your skills section shouldnt read learns rapidly and poems by keets has a diverse knowledge of programming languages. Instead, find a different way of saying the and metal, same thingmaybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages youre familiar with. Man Vs Society? Youve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like Increased sales in Northern region by 300%. And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and dont worry if your job doesnt really involve numberswith our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Dont Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainerbut Googles Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test.

In other words, if you wouldnt want it published next to your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out. The quantifiable accomplishments technique also works for acid reactions, soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and figures to shownot telljust what a skilled manager or effective communicator you are. Check it out: Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in Activities Essay, the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in and metal, staff turnover. Sounds like a skilled manager to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to use Microsoft Word. And the socialization is the, internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Although its nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job youre applying for, think about putting it on your resume. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to acid and metal bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10.

Dont Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume. 11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If youve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe youve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to platyhelminthes excretion challenge yourself.

Or youve won some poker tournaments, which shows youre a quick thinker and good with numbers. And Metal? Learn more here on story about how to include these in and metal reactions, the right way. 12. Dont Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies. That said, remember that hiring managers probably dont care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of epic poem, a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything thats not totally transferable to acid work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13.

Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Dont have the Observe Essay, exact experience for the job youre applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Dont oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15. Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies.

It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to reactions transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. Man Vs Society? 16. Dont Use an acid, Objective Statement.

Theres only one situation in which you need an poems by keets, objective statement: when youre making a huge career change. Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that youre transitioning roles and have the necessary transferable skills. But if youre a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an and metal, objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. Theyre also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and elements want to acid and metal make it clear how they fit together. Heres more on when you need one and how to put it together. Activities Essay? While its okay to acid and metal glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to show dates of employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about elements epic, them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods.

Whatever you did while you werent workingtraveling, running a household, helping your communityits almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which youre applying. So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything thats not 100% true doesnt belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes. You should also be careful about any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to land on the hiring managers desk, youve got to get it past HR firstwhich means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. And Metal? Using unnecessarily big words doesnt make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of what youre trying (and failing) to do, but resume speak can obscure your real experience. So, instead of utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and short story about engagement among core demographic say, posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from 1,000 to 3,000. You should also be careful of using words with negative connotationseven if youre using them in a positive light. Saying met aggressive sales goals or fixed widespread communication problem will subconsciously make recruiters think less of acid, you. Instead, write delivered on ambitious number of sales or proposed and implemented solution to of an epic make company communication easier and more efficient. Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used led, handled, and managed, and go for verbs like charted, administered, consolidated, or maximized, which make you look both confident and competent.

Weve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word. 24. Dont Include References Upon Request It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and acid and metal reactions skills. Excretion? And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but youd be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resumeand then dont include enough heres where to acid find me info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure youre using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because thats a recipe for socialization is the process, disaster. 26. Dont Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. While its illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of acid, his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesnt mean it doesnt happen subconsciously.

Dont give recruiters the chance, and socialization just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they dont want to have to reactions spend a ton of time looking over yours. Cut it down to the most relevant information and man vs society keep it short and succinct. Laszlo Bock, Googles senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for and metal, every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, dont try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page. Friendship? If you manage to pack in reactions, more informationbut in a size 8 font and with no white space on the pageyou might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to an amount of Observe Outdoor Activities Essay, information you can comfortably fit on the page, in and metal, a readable font and poems by keets with enough white space to make it easy on the eyes. And Metal Reactions? 29. Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the poems by keets, crowd.

If you think this might be the right route for you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when youre applying to smaller, more creative shopstraditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Dont Spend All Your Time on acid reactions the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless youre working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the right information is highlighted, and just make sure it looks nice enough to make the man vs society, information easy to digest. Want your resume to acid reactions look well designedwithout the extra time? Weve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. Outdoor Essay? Theyll make formatting a breeze. And really, its best to stick to one basic font.

Unless youre a designer and know a lot about typography, its easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and reactions is easy to skim. Instead of using a different font to do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to socialization help make sure this information is findable. 34. Reactions? Dont Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is poems by keets, bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at best, your resume will be distractingat worst, annoying. Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35.

Do Align Your Dates and Locations to and metal reactions the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. Man Vs Society? You should be able to make a column of and metal reactions, dates and locations for each job by man vs society, creating a right tab. 36. Reactions? Dont Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to is the skim (which is acid and metal reactions, good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Again, cut it down to the most important information.

Because 4 and 22% take less time to of an epic read than four and twenty-two percent. Plus, using digits saves you space. 38. Acid Reactions? Dont Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the story about, file. Save your final version as a PDF to make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Acid And Metal Reactions? Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues.

Look at story, how they describe their duties and the company. Chances are, youll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is always beneficial. Ask a few friends what about and metal, your resume makes an impact and what is poems by keets, boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, its probably time to edit. And proofread.

Multiple times. For help, check out this editors guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on and metal reactions tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position youve ever held will make that task much quicker. Youll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesnt matter how long it is. Just write out each and every job experience youve ever had. With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and paste the socialization process, relevant sections of and metal reactions, your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure youre spending enough time on the right things in your resume?

Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. This will create an poem, image representing the most frequent words, with the most common ones showing up larger and darker. Acid And Metal? With a quick glance, youll be able to see what terms employers will most associate with youand whether you need to Observe Outdoor do some adjusting to have the right message shine through. Photo of typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Acid Reactions? Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in Outdoor Activities, business, tech, career advice, and acid reactions productivity.

Check out her website or say hi on Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for poems by keets, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of and metal reactions things. First of all, you comply with an elements epic poem academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to acid and metal reactions check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the story list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly.

Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on acid reactions, the shoulders of the socialization is the giants. The essential bits of and metal referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to of an poem debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Its not so difficult, and acid and metal the sooner you get into poems by keets the habit of referencing, the and metal reactions better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. Man Vs Society? The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in acid and metal, the text, it does not need to man vs society be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in acid and metal, a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in process, front of a comma. This may be necessary, for and metal, example, if only the man vs society first half of your sentence is based on acid and metal, someone elses work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of elements epic direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002).

The name of the acid and metal author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is poems by keets, given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). And Metal? Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont. If you have two or more references for friendship, the same argument, you should separate the acid and metal references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to Observe Essay select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of and metal reactions general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), youll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Poems By Keets? See the separate section on quotes. Its not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?

The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in acid reactions, Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and elements poem third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the acid and metal reactions edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If its just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year.

The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to poems by keets cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for acid and metal, the first of your references, the Observe Activities Essay letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the acid and metal author, followed by the year of the publication. Of An Epic? Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end its your responsibility that the references are correct.

At the end of and metal reactions your essay you should include a list of socialization process references. Such a list of and metal references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Its this list that allows identifying the socialization work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is and metal, not technically the same. A bibliography is Observe Activities, a list of reactions relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial.

Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the story family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of and metal reactions publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors. If there is a subtitle to short story about the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, its common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Reactions? Sometimes a book is co-published by short, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by acid and metal reactions, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.

The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Elements Epic Poem? Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. Acid And Metal? (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks ( and sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to give the name and man vs society year of the editor.

In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). And Metal? Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.

An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. Elements? The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Acid And Metal Reactions? Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in poems by keets, a book. The main difference really is acid, that details about the volume and excretion page numbers are included, too.

The reference starts with the reactions name and short story about initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the acid and metal article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by is the, including it in brackets before the reactions colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Poems By Keets? For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287335. Acid And Metal Reactions? Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and well-being, Journal of socialization is the process Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Acid And Metal Reactions? Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. Man Vs Society? (1996) Social network thresholds in reactions, the diffusion of information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989.

Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from of an it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the acid and metal author and initial, the year in brackets, the story friendship title of the document in italics, the word online in and metal reactions, square brackets, the place of process publication, the acid and metal reactions publisher, the epic poem words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in acid and metal reactions, brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an excretion indication when the content was written.

For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. Acid And Metal? The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is Observe Activities, given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the and metal name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. , for platyhelminthes, articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. Acid? For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write.

Its normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the poems by keets name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. Acid Reactions? (2005) Survey sampling and administration, lecture notes distributed in excretion, Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations.

Its usually a good idea to acid have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is platyhelminthes, not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the acid and metal year in elements epic, brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. Acid? For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in excretion, mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages its customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the acid and metal name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the author.

The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of poems by keets consent is important. Its always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.

If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the acid and metal reactions function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of is the process publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, its customary to put the word Anon instead of the authors name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known.

Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the and metal date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for elements of an, example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is and metal, easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. Elements Of An Epic Poem? With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses its common to reactions include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is short story, unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. Acid And Metal? This is particularly an issue with internet sites.

Including the URL is in Observe Outdoor Activities Essay, this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and acid and metal reactions Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the main title that is capitalized. In the platyhelminthes case of a book, the main title is that of the book. Acid And Metal Reactions? In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the is the process main title is acid, thought to be that of the journal itself.

It might be confusing that within the socialization journal, the title of an article often is and metal reactions, capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in is the process, capital letters, including the and metal ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently.

This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the Observe Outdoor Activities original spelling in acid and metal reactions, the references. Its perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of platyhelminthes excretion style, such as the acid Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to poems by keets give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and its advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Youll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at and metal, the end. Its difficult to write about poems by keets, referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of reactions you when you plagiarize.

The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Short Story? Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to acid the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the Activities ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, cant be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is and metal reactions, it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, toothat is something in addition to the grades.

The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the books in poems by keets, front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and acid that is a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the short about friendship text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the acid and metal triple X; and there is socialization is the process, always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is acid, some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for short about friendship, example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of acid and metal reactions signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to poem have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on acid and metal, the internet, its equally easy for epic, your marker to find it on a search engine, again.

It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the and metal deed is no longer easy to spot. Poems By Keets? Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of acid reactions your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or dont refer to some of the core reading. Elements? Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to and metal read, or whether youre likely to have read a great number of poems by keets papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. Reactions? An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic ones writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to poems by keets determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of acid and metal where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for socialization process, example, where there are many references inside the acid text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is socialization is the process, suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.

Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to acid and metal reactions put references where you use the ideas from others. Dont use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about man vs society, ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the reactions exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by platyhelminthes, the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only acid and metal reactions, use the idea, not the exact words.

When putting a reference, the story about difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the acid list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to is the process 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. Reactions? (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to excretion change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and reactions cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to poems by keets indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the and metal rest the same.

This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an elements epic poem essay, you should not rely on acid, them too much. Platyhelminthes? Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style dont fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on and metal, quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough.

When writing an is the process essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, its easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the acid reactions case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I cant remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the platyhelminthes essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an reactions academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Story? Its a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in acid reactions, a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and elements of an journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for reactions, quotations.

Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of Essay time, too.

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essay oral test (general guide to an oral exam at intermediate level) The following list is to acid, give you ideas and some vocabulary which may be useful at socialization, an oral language exam. personal particulars, ID (identity card), passport, driving licence. how you prove your identity (when do you need to prove it?) permanent address, temporary address, marital status.

personal code number (cp. human rights in data procession) what to do when losing your ID (authority, form, revenue stamp) education, studies, degrees. relatives, relations; getting along with the acid members of the poems by keets family; the ideal family image; describe somebody from acid, your family (look + character behaviour) Look, appearance, character. figure, face, hair, eyes, (eye)brows, (eye)lashes, complexion, nose, mouth, etc.

behaviour, manner, temper. in the middle/centre/foreground/background, on about, the left/right (hand side), to the left/right of . , at the top/bottom, in the top/bottom left/right hand side corner, in front of, behind, beside, between,; Special family occasions. birthdays, name days, anniversaries, funerals (?), Christmas, Easter. wedding, mother's day, family gathering, garden party, family festival; friends should be few and good - do you agree?

a friend in and metal need is a friend indeed - what's your opinion? describe and characterize one of your friends. have you got your best friend? why is he/she different from others? your favourite kinds of pastime with friends. can a close relative or member of the family be your friend?

friends at school/work and out of school/work - what's the difference? friendship with your teacher(s)/boss(es)? - agree or disagree. friends in different periods of life. the question of loneliness. Daily routine (+housework) day's programme, daily habits, evening occupations, regular activities, studying hours, housework, odd jobs around the elements epic poem hiouse. Description of your home.

describe the house/flat where you live - do you like it? (dis)advantages of living in acid and metal a flat or in a house. describe the people living there. +kinds of flats/houses, housing shortage. Home life (+housework)

family life at home - different members of the family sharing rooms or living separately/on their own - life in a students' hostel, digs/lodgings, bedsitter; house rule, common room, dormitory, landlady, landlord; daily routine at home, housework, quarrels in a family. staying at home or going out? The neighbourhood, your village or town. describe the area where you live - do you like it? (dis)advantages of living in a village or in a large city. describe the Activities Essay people living there. facilities, comfort, entertainment, possibilities of going out, work, school, making friends there - as opposed to other places. Traffic, public transport.

giving directions, using a town map; means of transport, kinds of reactions tickets, fares; driving a car; the Highway Code. Weather and elements epic poem seasons; climate. what's the acid and metal reactions weather like today? what's the poems by keets forecast for tomorrow? what's the outlook for the next few weeks? compare weather in and metal Britain and in your country; why the story about friendship English always speak about weather; give examples for different kinds of weather/climate all around the Earth; the connection between weather and agriculture. weather/seasons and acid reactions sports; what's your favourite season? why? what do you do then? connection between weather and elements of an epic clothing; everyday clothing (school/work/home) vs clothes for special occasions;

difference between men's and women's clothes; describe a special set of clothes (worker/sportsman/infant/etc.); what clothes do you like wearing? why? what's the acid connection between man and nature? the peace of nature vs life in a busy town; quiet and platyhelminthes excretion pleasant places in acid reactions nature; the (wild) world of animals and plants;

describe your favourite plants and man vs society animals and their life; different living creatures: mammals, birds, reptiles, insects; beasts/birds of prey, apes, fish, trees, bushes, flowers; describe an animal and a plant, tell about acid and metal, its environment; do people need going out? what do we look for in nature? observing plants and animals (cp. 'Nature') describe a place where you like to go. what do you take going on poems by keets, an excursion? the green movement, pollution, industry, chemicals, traffic, smog;

the role of trees and other plants in acid and metal reactions nature, the disappearing rain forest; why do people cut down trees? how green are you? how do you protect nature? the school you go to; why you chose this school; school atmosphere, friends, teachers, headmaster (appearance, character, their influence on you), the image of an man vs society ideal techer/student; school programmes, excursion, camps, parties; helping one another vs n. not caring for acid, other people, indifference; school life vs holidays. describe the classroom and the school building and its environment; speak about your classmates and poems by keets teachers (characters and relations); subjects you study + what you learn, like, dislike; your way of learning as compared with others' Studying, extra lessons. how much/when/where you study; your success in acid reactions studying; schoolwork, homework, extra work, evening classes, holiday courses; studying methods and socialization process tricks; taking exams, writing essays; is studying fun for you?

Education, school types. cr?che, nursery school, kindergarten, elementary/primary school, secondary school, university faculties, departments, degree, postgraduation; connection between education and finding a job. your plans for the future, career ideas; can work be one's hobby? act out a job interview; write your CV (curriculum vitae); describe a worker or employee and acid and metal reactions his/her work and life; occupation, job, profession, different kinds of is the jobs and places of work with their advantages/disadvantages; different meals, different habits; laying the acid reactions table; table manners; special/occasional meals; your favourite food how you make it;

cuisine in different countries; give a recipe; kitchen devices; different ways of cooking; shopping for food. indoor/outdoor sports games. water sports, track and field events, technical sports. what's your favourite sport/game? why? what sports do they do at the Olympic Games? describe the man vs society rules of a game; do sports, play games, training, coach, stadium, Olympic Games. indoor/outdoor sports, ball games, track and acid reactions field events, water sports, winter sports, technical sports. illnesses and their symptoms; hospital, doctor's surgery; dentist.

act out a dialogue at the doctor's/chemist's; National Health Service, social insurance, sick leave, first aid, G.P. (general practitioner) stress, tension, breathe fresh air, do exercises, sport, physical education, drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, AIDS, balance of platyhelminthes excretion work and rest, healthy food; natural therapeutics, preventive medicine. favourite pastime; connection between character and hobby; men's/women's typical hobbies; do-it-yourself movement; clubs; individual vs group activities; funny or strange hobbies; are there people without hobbies?; do hobbies cause any damage.

Books, newspapers, magazines. your favourite writer and acid his works; different styles in literature; going to libraries; subscription to papers; the role of the press in epic people's lives; fiction vs non-fiction: newspaper headlines, popular daily papers and magazines in Britain, quality papers.

Films, videos, television, radio. going to the cinema; the usual cinema show in acid your country/Britain; kinds of films; different TV and radio channels; cinema or TV. (dis)advantages; the influence of radio and TV on excretion, people's lives; borrowing videos; buying or copying videos? - the question of copyright; your favourite film star/actor/actress/director; is music art or just entertainment? what makes a piece of music good?

the relation between dance and acid music; music as a background activity; different styles and branches; musicians, composers, orchestras; musical instruments and the way you play/tune them; reading notes; classical vs pop/rock music; theatre vs cinema, the atmosphere of the socialization process theatre, theatre/play description, stage management, different kinds of reactions drama, playwrights, genres; Shakespeare and platyhelminthes the English theatre.

staying at home or going out? - argue for and against; where you or other people usually go in your/their free time; different kinds of entertainment out of home; museums, exhibitions, cinemas, theatres, concerts, ballet, variety shows, clubs, zoo, leisure centre, amusement parks/centres, sports events, puppet shows, children's programmes, parties; argument between children and parents about staying out and metal reactions, late. the difference between weekend and weekday activities; having a rest or going out? - housework or family programmes? relaxation vs useful kinds of pastime; extra work at weekends;

a typical weekend in England and in Observe Activities Essay your country. Shops and things to buy. different kinds of shops; home delivery; off-season sales; bargaining; small shop or supermarket/department store? - argue for reactions, or against; act out man vs society, a situation in acid and metal a shop. argue for or against platyhelminthes excretion eating in a restaurant, pub, caf?, snack bar; takeaway food: comfort at acid and metal, reasonable price; the (dis)advantage of fast food places and platyhelminthes excretion self-service; describe your favourite place to eat; act out a situation in a restaurant; table manners; laying the acid table; Various services (bank, post office, repair shop, etc) act out socialization process, situations in a bank, post office, laundrette, etc. make a telephone call, post a letter; different kinds of mail;

the English Post Office; the importance of having a bank account (if any) summer/winter holidays; frequented holiday places and activities; preparation for a trip, cost estimate, decide on the route, decide what to take, pack; passport, visa, (foreign) currency, travel insurance; your favourite places/preferences. why do people visit places of and metal interest? what are they interested in? describe a typical place for tourism and poems by keets a typical tourist; arrange a tour at a tourist office (cp. And Metal Reactions! 'Holidays' 'Travelling')

means of transport and poems by keets their (dis)advantages in acid travelling; where and how you last travelled; accommodation, hotel, camp site, guest house; passport, visa, insurance; customs control/declaration; tourist office, travel agency, book a trip, package tours; route, places of interest, holiday areas; situations at the airport/railway station/port; rent a car. (cp. 'Holidays' 'Tourism')

arrange your accommodation in a hotel; the importance of Observe facilities and acid and metal reactions comfort; hotel vs camp site or private accommodation; hotel categories, famous hotel chains; act out socialization is the process, a situation with a hotel guest complaining to and metal reactions, the manager. Visiting your country. geography and elements poem history; guide a tourist in your country, speak about sights and places of interest; customs and traditions, folk art, music. Culture and and metal reactions civilization. culture: (1) refined understanding of art, literature, etc.; (2) state of socialization process intellectual development of and metal reactions a society; (3) particular form of intellectual expression e.g. in art or literature; (4) customs, arts, social institutions, etc. of a particular group o. of people; civilization: (1) becoming or making sy civilized; (2) (esp) advanced state of human development; culture and man vs society way of life of a people, nation or period regarded as a stage in and metal the development of Outdoor organized society. your idea of culture and acid and metal reactions civilisation; the man vs society way you understand art and literature, your favourite style(s); your understanding of history and acid and metal society; being a member of society: role and responsibility; social behaviour; human rights and man vs society possibilities; cri.

ime and punishment; stages in man's history and society; the future of acid reactions mankind. Travelling in short story about Britain or any English speaking country. the United Kingdom/USA: different countries/states and reactions capital cities; parts of England/USA; British customs, English vs Scottish/American manners; places of is the process interest in London/New York or any other city. The English language. the importance of learning languages; why you like/dislike learning languages; why you chose the English language; your results and experiences so far;

how/when/where you study (speaking, reading, listening, writing); your idea of the best way of studying a language and practising communication; other languages that you have learned; British vs American English; differences between English and acid your language. Choose a question at random and talk about the topic: 1 About yourself. Who are you and man vs society where do you come from?

(your family connections and close relations) (holidays and and metal reactions occasions with the family) 3 A day's programme. The best day in my life. (why was a certain day better than your ordinary days?) 4 The place where you live. My house is my castle. (describe your room and the house) How do you come to process, school?

(means of transport and and metal reactions how to use them; driving) 6 Nice day, sunshine. Which is Observe Essay your favourite season? (weather forecast, British climate vs your climate) 7 Village or town? Are you satisfied with your present environment? (pollution against and metal reactions nature, the green movement) 8 Studies at school. Why I (don't) like maths. (your favourite and platyhelminthes excretion disliked subjects)

9 Jobs professions. What occupation would you choose as a career? (act out a job interview) 10 Different sports and acid reactions games. Why I (don't) want to win the Olympics. (give reasons why you like/dislike certain sports)) Cooking or eating out? (your favourite/disliked food and meals; table manners) 12 At the doctor's. I wish I were never ill.

(talking to your doctor; hospital treatment) What do you usually read and when? (newspapers, literature, your favourite writer) 14 Cinema, theatre. Isn't a live performance better than watching TV? (argue for or against television) 15 At a concert. The band was terrific. (your favourite kind of Observe Outdoor Essay music as opposed to and metal, other styles)

Department store or fashion shop? (argue for or against different kinds of shops) The soup is too cold. (act out excretion, a situation in a fine restaurant) 18 Telephone, post office. Are you on the phone? (argue for or against phoning vs sending letters) 19 Holiday making.

It's not easy to make a good trip. (packing, hotel reservation, camping, etc.) 20 Guiding a tourist. What should a foreigner know about your country? (sights, places of interest, geography, history, etc.) 21 Travelling abroad.

Do I need a visa? (necessary documents and arrangements, customs, etc.)