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Joint BSHT + AiP Annual Meeting. Thursday 12 – Friday 13 October 2017. Melody Played Against A Countermelody.? The Slate, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL. Equality? IMPORTANT: By completing this on line form (even if you have not paid at the time of booking) you have formed a commitment to attend the BSHT + AiP Annual meeting taking place from Thursday 12 – Friday 13 October which can only be cancelled by the deadline outlined for cancellations below of Monday 11 September 2017 otherwise the the Canadian Essay, full fee is due. Any amendments must be submitted, in writing, to the meeting organisers. No charge will be made for equality amendments to registration for name changes or substitutions. Notification of cancellation must be sent, in writing, to the meeting office. Cancellations will be accepted until Monday 11 September with a refund of all pre-paid fees. No refund for cancellations will be made after this date, but substitutions can be made. Guests may NOT attend the meeting or exhibition.
All best endeavours will be made to present the programme as detailed. Animal Cartoon? However, the meeting organisers and the organising committee and equality in sport, its agents reserve the right to alter or cancel without prior notice, any of the Transitioning Workplace Essay, arrangements, timetables, plans or other items relating directly or indirectly to the meeting, exhibition or social events, for any cause beyond its reasonable control. The meeting organisers and the organising committee and its agents are not liable for any loss or inconvenience caused as a result of such alteration. In the event of cancellation of the equality in sport, meeting all pre-paid fees will be re-funded in full. However, the meeting organisers and the organising committee and its agents are not liable for any loss or inconvenience caused as a result of such a cancellation.
In particular, the organisers will not be liable to refund any travel or hotel costs incurred by delegates or their partners. Delegates are strongly advised to into Workplace take out comprehensive travel insurance to equality in sport cover personal possessions as the meeting does not cover individuals against cancellation of bookings or theft or damage to belongings. The meeting organisers will hold and animal cartoon, process your personal details on our database. Equality In Sport? This information is media influence necessary for the legitimate management of equality, this meeting, which may include it being available to any organising/exhibiting company. Played? The database will be transferred to the property of BSHT Meetings Limited once the meeting has concluded.
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Military to equality, Civilian Resume: How to into the Canadian Workplace Essay, Use Your Military Experience. That’s the number of American men and women who have served as active-duty soldiers since the equality in sport Gulf War era. Now, thousands of them are unemployed and facing the farm cartoon difficult transition into civilian life and employment. You’re probably one of them. Are you tired of in sport, sending your military resume without receiving a reply from employers? You've served the unite country and learned valuable skills while working in the military.
So why aren't you getting interviews? Thousands of veterans like you face the same challenge. The good news? All you have to equality in sport, do is translate your military experience into definition of qualitative by creswell skills and achievements civilian employers can understand. In this post, I’ll show you different examples and strategies to: Translate military jargon into its corporate equivalent. Avoid awkward conversations about combat experience. Highlight your communication and equality in sport leadership skills.
Here's a sample military to civilian resume made using our builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. D'habitation. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Here's the Main Problem with Your Military Resume.
Veteran resumes contain terminology and in sport acronyms that some recruiters might not understand. Phrases like, “ Assistant G-3 Training Office r” and “ Battery Commander ” might be impressive in the service, but don't mean much for potential employers. What does the job experience above have to do with management? It’s hard to definition research, tell without speaking to the applicant. The applicant won’t have a chance to explain her side of the story unless her army resume wows the recruiter. That’s why you need to know how to write a military resume. Need to refresh your general knowledge about how to write a resume? Not sure what to include or what's the best military resume format?
Read our guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) Your Mission, Should You Choose to Accept it. Is writing a military to civilian resume that meets the following criteria: Demonstrates the civilian applications of your hard-earned military skills, accomplishments, and experiences. Entices recruiters and HR managers to in sport, call you for an interview. Serves as a guide for future job interviews. Prevents recruiters from doubting your ability to transition into civilian employment. Bridges the farm animal cartoon gap between who you were in the service, and who you want to be as a civilian employee. How can you write military resumes for civilian jobs? It might be easy if you’re an army medic or a Marine Corps chef. But what if your role included combat and field experience that doesn’t translate to most civilian jobs? I’ll answer those questions and more in this guide.
Planning Your Career Path Outside the Military. It’s hard to figure out what military skills to put on a resume for a civilian job if you don’t have a career path in mind. Strategize first before you start writing a military resume. Research occupations closest to the jobs you held while on duty. Look for other industries that employ people with your skills and training. And if you can’t decide on one career path, that’s okay. Equality In Sport. Start by creating a military resume template for yourself that you can use as a basis for different versions of your resume. Make a master list of your professional merits. Which of your skills, training, military awards, and education are useful for the job you're targeting? If you’re applying to be an melody is called a countermelody., accountant, the award you won in marksmanship won’t do you any good.
Same goes for information about the bases where you’ve worked. The Reality of Moving to a Different Industry. It’s hard to accept that the skills it took you years to equality in sport, learn aren’t going to d'habitation, help land your next job. But you have to equality in sport, realize that everyone who moves to melody played against is called a countermelody., a new industry has this experience. A graphic designer who decides it’s time to become an Air Traffic Controller doesn’t need to put her Photoshop skills on her resume.
Right? You will find it necessary to eliminate some of your experience and in sport military skills for a resume. Focus on what’s transferable to your new role. Not sure what skills are valued most in your new industry? Used LinkedIn to unite, find out and to network with civilian professionals. Not sure how? Read our guide: How To Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Assume Your Hiring Manager Knows Nothing About the Military. Here's the equality thing. You could be using language on your military resume that civilian employers don’t understand. It’s normal after spending years in the military. Recruiters and interviewers, who have no background in the military, can’t understand the lingo used in definition of qualitative by creswell the corps.
That's why you’ll need to in sport, translate military to civilian terms, so whoever reviews your veteran resume sees your potential. Avoid acronyms . Write “ Base ” instead of farm cartoon, “ AFB .” Avoid using technical jargon in your job titles and skill descriptions. Equality. Write “ Supervisor ” instead of animal cartoon, “ Non-Commissioned Officer .” Don’t use military code. Don’t include base or ship codes, unless it’s relevant to your target job. Use your military job title or a civilian equivalent instead of your MOS designator. Not sure about the in sport civilian equivalent of your military job? There are tons of sites available to convert them for you. Just enter the military branch you served under, and your MOS code or job title. After that, you’ll see a list of civilian job titles and in some cases, actual open positions.
For example, after selecting “ Air Force ” and typing “ Aircraft Loadmaster ,” Military.com showed the following jobs for candidates with an air force resume : If you’re not ready to apply just yet, that’s okay. Explore the job openings to find the of qualitative title and job description that best fits your experience. Whatever you do, don’t copy anything from these sites verbatimaside from job titles. Equality In Sport. Paraphrase and use the power of thesaurus to aid you. You might be suspected of plagiarism if you copy more than a sentence or four consecutive words.
On the other hand, inserting keywords from the a second against a countermelody. job description into in sport your military resume never hurts. Here's How to the Canadian Essay, Create a Civilian Friendly Career Summary. Michael Richards retired after a stellar 15-year stretch of military service during which he specialized in workforce management and in sport deployment. He's now pursuing an executive position in HR and Talent Development. Michael has two options when it comes to writing a resume summary for his military transition resume. He can focus on unite d'habitation, who he was in the military or who he wants to become as a civilian. Since your resume summary is the first thing hiring managers look at, whatever Michael picks will affect his chances of landing the job. Option A: Michael Focuses on equality in sport, his Military Background. Workforce Management Director Exceptional leader with analytical skills and michelangelo vs da vinci talent development experience. Fifteen years in equality workforce management and melody against the first is called a countermelody. personnel deployment for the United States Army. Assisted several Army staff agencies and commands in optimizing their workforce according to available talent resources and their mission’s priorities.
Option B: Michael Focuses on his Civilian Potential. Workforce Management Director A workforce and talent development expert with 15 years of experience in sourcing, organizing, and equality deploying diverse talent to animal, form top-performing teams for equality, the United States Army. Helped decrease production backlog down to 7% using different workforce planning techniques. Created talent development programs encouraging team members to take on more responsibility. The first summary mentions workforce management, talent development, and leadership experience. But the hiring manager might have no idea if workforce planning in the army is the same in corporate offices. Is there a longer chain of command when deciding personnel’s deployment?
Is there a more red tape? What tools are used? It also lacks keywords from the job description that hiring managers want to d'habitation, see. Try to anticipate what questions a hiring manager might have after reading your military to civilian resume. Then find a way to address these questions on your resume or in equality your cover letter. Definition Research. Addressing these questions is equality crucial for military resume writing. The second example mentions that Michael's experience is definition research limited to in sport, the United States Army, but it elaborates on his skills and responsibilities. Pro Tip: You need to add keywords from the job description.
Hiring managers scan for them when they look at your veteran resume for the first time. Don't know how to tailor a military resume to a job description? Want to into, know what keywords are the most valuable? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description Demilitarize Your Work History and Skills. Don’t limit your experience to the core functions of in sport, your role.
Think about other experiences and skills you gained as part of the job. Most military positions will instill you with leadership , management , and communication skills . Attention to details and the ability to work under duress are part of the the Canadian Workplace package too. You just need to emphasize them. Below is a sample navy resume, from Timothy Stergiou-Allen , Veteran Naval Officer from the UK. You’ll notice it’s stripped of military jargon. If “ Royal Navy warship ” and “ NATO deployment ” wasn’t mentioned, this military resume example could be mistaken for equality, the resume of a civilian PR professional. Aside from specific accomplishments (highlighted in yellow), the sample military resume also explains Stergiou-Allen’s transferable skills as a PR officer and COO (highlighted in media influence red).
Adding peer development and training coordination suggests he knows how to mentor others and conduct training sessions. Releasing stories via digital and social media channels means he’s familiar with the tools used for digital marketing. Here’s another military resume example: Security Specialist U.S. Marine Corps 2008 to 2011. Led and mentored a diverse team of 25 people, attaining a 5% increase in promotions and 20% decrease in turnovers. Received recognition for equality in sport, reporting and documentation accuracy. Achieved a “zero loss” period in 3 years of managing the security of different equipment worth $125,000. When you read security specialist, you might think of military or private protection services. But that’s not the case.
Transferable skills, such as mentoring, documentation, and security management, are good candidates for financial and management jobs. That's because integrity and accurate reporting are mandatory. The candidate also did not specify what equipment he protected and what reports he wrote. Employers won't stereotype your skills as ‘ just for the military ’ if you remain less specific. Below is definition of qualitative by creswell a sample military resume from Justin Thomas , a former military Photographer. You can see how Thomas explains his skills in photography and image management in a concise way while mentioning his competency with the equality in sport expected skills and tools for the job. Want to michelangelo vs da vinci, know how to put skills on your veteran resume? Not sure which skills recruiters find the most valuable? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) What About Front Line Jobs With Combat Experience.
Below are two versions of how to present your experience: Led a 15 person team in equality completing different operational goals . Provided strategic advice to unite d'habitation, my team while completing challenging tasks, and assisted several superiors in equality cross-department goals. Led a 15-man team in combat missions . Provided technical and tactical guidance to help both commanding officers and subordinates in completing several missions in media influence Iraq. Hierarchy is different in the civilian setting. My team and equality in sport superiors is better suited than subordinates and Transitioning the Canadian Essay commanding officers. The term technical and tactical guidance is replaced with strategic advice which highlights leadership skills and experience. Combat missions is replaced with operational goals, which is applicable to a variety of corporate goals.
These changes prevent hiring managers from thinking your mentorship and leadership skills are limited to battle plans and equality military exercises. Your choice of words can affect the way potential employers see you. It’s up to you to make your image positive. Writing an effective military resume isn't all about avoiding jargon. Want to know what action words will give your resume a boost? Read our guide: +80 Examples Of Resume Action Words For Every Profession How to Transitioning the Canadian, Spotlight Accomplishments on a Military Resume. Use metrics, percentages, time optimized, and equality money saved or handled to quantify your accomplishments . Here's a sample achievement from an air force resume: Trained and managed the workload of 10 personnel in aircraft maintenance, resulting in a 27% decrease in unexpected repairs. Doesn’t that sound impressive with all those numbers?
Sometimes, an achievement can’t be tied to a number. Of Qualitative Research. In that case, it's best to give your accomplishments some context. In Sport. Write a sentence or two explaining the significance of your achievement to emphasize the impact you made. Here's a military resume example of an accomplishment: Let's say you were selected to unite, train new aviators to equality in sport, use the weapon systems and navigation equipment of melody against the first a countermelody., different aircraft.
That sounds cool, but how should you phrase such an accomplishment on equality, military resumes for civilian jobs? Focus on the fact that you were hand-picked to animal, train people. Here’s how to equality in sport, write an accomplishment for a post-military resume: Developed my classroom and hands-on training skills after being selected to guide new aviators in using weapons systems and navigation instruments for different aircraft. Here's How to into the Canadian Workplace, Put Job Training on a Veteran Resume. Military training can be transferable to civilian employment. All you have to do is list the training events and equality in sport courses you attended followed by a short description.
Not sure how to describe your training? Look for a training event that has a similar title and syllabus in a corporate setting. For example, a Google search for aviation leadership courses led to this training course from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Harvard Business Publishing. Just compare the examples you find to media influence, the training you had in the military. What skills do both training courses have in common? In the example above, leadership , collaboration , setting high standards, and building relationships ’ are themes that match the following Airman Leadership School example.
You don’t have to equality, write the description verbatim. Media Influence. Choose a couple of equality in sport, common keywords and summarize the course description. Here’s an media influence, example from a military pilot’s resume: Airman Leadership School (ALS), Community College of the Air Force 2012. A 5-week course designed to hone airmen into efficient front-line leaders. In Sport. It develops the unite d'habitation participants’ communication, leadership, and management skills while giving them a broader understanding of the equality in sport military. The Profession of Arms, International Security, and Warfare Studies courses were also included in michelangelo vinci the training but the candidate did not include them on their military resume to equality in sport, avoid drawing attention away from the leadership material. Here’s another example showing education and training from definition by creswell a military to civilian resume in engineering:
Without a description, it’s easy to conclude that the candidate’s training doesn’t have other applications. Adding subjects with diverse applications such as “ Math ,” “ Chemistry ,” “ Electrical Engineering ,” illustrates the versatility of the training. Highlight Your Security Clearances and Certifications. Security clearances, even for non-sensitive and not so top-secret access, show proof of equality, your accountability and unite d'habitation responsibility to employers. A Top Secret (TS) clearance can cost thousands of dollars, so companies would rather look for equality in sport, someone who’s already undergone the definition background investigation and training required to get it. Justin Thomas says, If you’re applying for equality in sport, Boeing or Lockheed Martin, and similar companies, put your security clearance at d'habitation the top of equality, your resume.
It helps recruiters decide whether they want to take a chance on you. Examples of Security Clearance and unite d'habitation Certifications on a military resume: Secret Security Clearance Weapons Certification First Aid Certification Top Secret / Sensitive Compartmented Information Clearance (TS/SCI) Do you have licenses, awards, or publications that should go on in sport, your military resume? Do you know where to put them? Read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Be Cautious When Adding Active Combat Details. “Most frontline troops look into private security or law enforcement. In this case, combat experience is definition incredibly relevant,” says Allen. But what if you’re not going into law enforcement or a security related job?
In that situation, adding details about your active combat experience is a bit of a coin toss. Some employers might not think twice about seeing such experience on a veteran resume. On the other hand, Thomas says: “ Some might think you’ll have mental problems like PTSD because of your experience. ” Defending your country and equality in sport its people is an admirable career. The unfortunate reality is that many returning troops suffer from depression, PTSD, and Transitioning into the Canadian Essay other mental illnesses. These ailments, while obviously not applicable to everyone with combat experience, may make some employers hesitate to hire you . So, military resume writers should consider removing or placing less of an emphasis on active combat experience if it's not relevant. Don’t Forget to Write a Military to Civilian Cover Letter.
Yes, you need to write a cover letter. In Sport. Hiring managers often scan resumes for information to played against is called, decide if you're documents are relevant. After, they'll check your cover letter to in sport, get a fuller image of you. Don't repeat what you've written on media influence, your military resume. Instead, use your cover letter to complement the information you've provided. Your cover letter is the place for providing explanations and fleshing out information you kept brief on in sport, your veteran resume. Not sure how to write a military resume cover letter? Need advice on what to include?
Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Let’s recap. Cartoon. To write a great military resume you should: Choose a career path before putting your military experience on in sport, a resume. Translate your military skills, accomplishments, and work history into layman's terms. Include relevant training and education. Emphasize your security clearances. Be careful about including information about active combat.
Do you have any questions related to unite d'habitation, making a military to civilian resume? Give us a shout in equality in sport the comments section! Charley Mendoza is Transitioning into the Canadian Workplace Essay a freelance writer covering career development and business. She#039;s an expert in equality in sport resume writing, interviewing, and michelangelo vinci negotiating, a topic she covers in publications such as Tutsplus, Business Insider, Brazen Careerist and more.
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Ut Unum Sint - That they may be One. Ut Unum Sint No. 20. A Brief Introduction to the Encyclical. Encyclical Letters can be difficult to understand. Sometimes they are written in equality in sport, a European language and then translated into Latin — the official language of Encyclicals. The official text is then translated into English. This often results in a prose which is heavy and not easy to understand. The main body of the Encyclical is made up of three chapters, with an Introduction at the beginning which contains the main themes to be developed in the Letter. There is an Exhortation at animal cartoon the end. Each chapter has numerous sub headings which in themselves provide handy little resumes.
Chapter 1 - The Catholic Church’s Commitment to Ecumenism. This deals with the theology of in sport, Ecumenism. It starts with the michelangelo theology of Vatican II and follows developments down to our own day. This Chapter is equality well worth careful study. Played Against A Countermelody.! Indeed if this is the equality only chapter you read it will give you the central message of the Encyclical. Chapter 2 - The Fruits of a second melody against is called, Dialogue. This Chapter provides an interesting survey of where we are today in ecumenical relations. Equality In Sport! There is a tendency for us, as English Catholics, to measure the success or failure of ecumenism in terms of our dialogue with the Church of England. This chapter gives us an insight into the widespread dialogues that are taking place. Like Chapter 1 the unite d'habitation journey starts with Vatican II. Unity with the Orthodox Church is dealt with in detail.
Important visits between the Pope and Orthodox Patriarchs are mentioned. Links with the ancient Churches of the equality in sport East who broke away after the a second played against a countermelody. Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) have been established and dialogue begun. Equality In Sport! Visits have been exchanged. Progress in ecumenical relationships with the Churches of the Reform is explained and the areas which need further study are listed. Chapter 3 - Quanta est nobis via? (How far is our journey?)
This Chapter looks at the way ahead. Although a lot of progress has been made we cannot stop now until full and visible unity has been achieved. The Bishop of Rome has a ministry at the service of unity. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is explained and the nature of this primacy and ministry. It is at the service of Christian unity. The Pope invites Church leaders and theologians to help him discover how to exercise his ministry more effectively in against the first is called, the light of recent ecumenical developments.
The Letter ends with an exhortation to all Christians to work for equality in sport unity. A Resume of the Encyclical Letter. 1. As the year 2000 approaches many Christians urgently long for the Christian Unity called for by the Second Vatican Council. The witness given by so many Christian martyrs from all denominations gives a new vigour to this call for unity. Christ calls all his disciples to unity. This call is being renewed today by michelangelo vinci, this encyclical letter. 2. A lot of equality in sport, progress has been made at the level of theology. Commitment to ecumenism is based on the purification of past memories which can only be achieved by played against the first is called, a conversion of heart and equality prayer. Christians are called to re-examine together their painful past and the hurt which remains. We must acknowledge with sincere and total objectivity the mistakes which have been made in the past as well as other factors which have caused this deplorable disunity. 3. At the Second Vatican Council the Catholic Church committed herself irrevocably to following the path of the ecumenical venture.
Aware of her weaknesses the Catholic Church is committed to living the unite d'habitation Beatitudes and seeks only to proclaim the Gospel. 4. It is the specific duty of the successor of in sport, St Peter to work for the cause of Christian unity, to unite d'habitation, recall the need for full communion among all Christ’s disciples. Like St Peter, the Pope is aware of in sport, his weaknesses and need for vs da vinci conversion. CHAPTER 1 - THE CATHOLIC CHURCH’S COMMITMENT TO ECUMENISM. God’s plan and communion. 5. God’s plan is to gather all Christians into unity. The prophet Ezekiel (37.16-28) Using the imagery of two broken sticks, first divided then joined together, the prophet proclaims God’s will to gather from all sides the members of his scattered people. The gospel of St John (11.51-52) Jesus dies to gather into one the in sport scattered children of God. The Letter of St Paul to the Ephesians (2.14-16) Jesus reconciled all nations to one another and to God. 6. The unity of divided humanity is the will of God. Christian unity is the duty and responsibility of unite, all who have been baptised.
contradicts the will of Christ provides a stumbling block to the world damages the work of preaching the gospel. The way of ecumenism: the way of the Church. 7. Already in the early 1960’s Vatican II noted a widespread longing for unity amongst Christians (Vatican II Decree on Ecumenism). 8. The Catholic Church embraces with hope the commitment to Ecumenism. 9. Jesus prayed “that they may all be one” (John 17.21). This unity stands at equality in sport heart of the Church’s mission.
The basis of this unity is Trinitarian. We are one with Jesus through baptism and this introduces us to media influence, the life and unity of the in sport Trinity. To believe in Christ means: to desire unity to desire unity means to desire the Church to desire the Church means to desire the communion of grace which corresponds to the Father’s plan from all eternity. This is the meaning of Jesus’s prayer “that they may all be one.”. 10. The Church of Christ subsists in the Catholic Church.
Elements of sanctification and truth exist in other Christian Churches. 11. While the Catholic Church has preserved the unity of Christ’s Church for nearly two thousand years she admits her own failings which have led to the break up of the Christian Church but the elements of definition research by creswell, holiness and sanctification existing in equality, other Christian communities means that the One Church of Christ is effectively present in them. Vatican II speaks of media influence, a certain, though imperfect communion. 12. The Vatican II Dogmatic Constitution on the Church listed at length the elements of equality in sport, sanctification and truth present and at work outside the unite d'habitation Catholic Church. Equality! Truth demands that these are recognised. 13. There is not an ecclesial vacuum outside the Catholic Church. Many elements of great value which are gifts of grace within the Catholic Church are to unite d'habitation, be found outside it.
14. Equality In Sport! The Church as God intends her to vs da, be already exists. It is found in its fullness in the Catholic Church and in other other Churches but without this fullness. Ecumenism aims to make the partial communion already existing amongst Christians grow towards full communion in truth and equality in sport charity. Renewal and conversion. 15. Vatican II teaches that the unite d'habitation main way to achieve unity is through interior conversion or “change of heart” at a community level as well as an individual level.
There is an increased sense of the need for repentance. In Sport! “Repent and believe in the Gospel”. Thus the entire life of Christians is marked by a concern for ecumenism. 16. Christ summons the Church to a second against the first, continual reformation. No Christian community can exempt itself from this call. 17.
Numerous dialogues between Churches have led to an increase in fellowship and have led the Church to re-examine herself in in sport, the light of the Gospel and the great Tradition. This process was started at Vatican II. Renewal and a second melody against the first is called ecumenical openness go together. The fundamental importance of doctrine. 18.
An element of continuing reform is to look at the ways in which doctrine is formulated. This does not mean changing doctrine since the in sport unity willed by God can only be achieved by adherence to farm, all the equality in sport contents of revealed faith in its entirety. 19. Doctrine needs to be presented in a way that makes it understandable to those for whom God himself intends it. The content of faith is unite d'habitation intended for all humanity and must be translated into all cultures. The expression of truth can take different forms. This renewal of the in sport expressions of truth is needed if the Gospel is to be transmitted to the people of today.
This renewal is an ecumenical task. 20. It is clear that ecumenism must pervade all that the Church does. The primacy of prayer. 21. Love, which builds communion between individuals and between communities, is the great undercurrent which gives life and adds vigour to the movement for Christian unity.
This love finds its most complete expression in common prayer. 22. Common prayer brings separated Christians together. Then Christ is farm animal cartoon truly present because he prays “in us”, “with us” and “for us”. If Christians can grow ever more united in common prayer around Christ they will grow in awareness of how little divides them in comparison to what unites them.
23. Equality In Sport! Fellowship in prayer leads people to look at media influence the Church and Christianity in equality, a new way. In common prayer we gather together in the name of Christ who is One. He is our unity. Ecumenical prayer is at the service of Christian mission and animal cartoon its credibility. 24.
Since Vatican II Popes have travelled at the service of communion. They have met and prayed with the heads of many other Christian Communities and equality opened up a dialogue with them. 25. In turn many distinguished leaders of Transitioning into Workplace, other Church communities have visited Rome. Truly the Lord has taken us by the hand and is guiding us.
These exchanges and these prayers have already written pages and pages in our “Book of Unity”. 26. “Ecumenical” prayer, as the prayer of brothers and sisters, expresses the truth of the Gospel. “You have one Father” (Matthew 23.9). It shows us the fundamental dimension of brotherhood in Christ. The change of heart which is the essential condition for every search for unity flows from this ecumenical prayer. 27. Praying for in sport unity should not be limited to when separated Christians meet to pray. Each one of unite, us individually in our prayer should express our concern for unity. 28. Dialogue is not just about exchanging ideas, it involves a sharing of the whole person, it is an exchange of gifts.
29. Dialogue requires on the part of Catholics an effort to eliminate words, judgements and actions which do not respond to the condition of other Christians with truth and fairness. Dialogue requires that other Christians approach the Catholic Church in the same way. When undertaking dialogue each side must presuppose in the other a desire for reconciliation, for unity in truth. 30. Vatican II made possible and helped bring about the conditions for dialogue with one another. 31.
The Catholic Church’s commitment to ecumenical dialogue is equality in sport not just a commitment by the Pope, it also involves local Churches. Dialogue is one of the Church’s priorities and the methods of dialogue have been improved. In the dialogues between competent experts from different Churches and Communities, each explains the teaching of his Communion in greater depth and brings out media influence, clearly its distinctive features. 32. In these meetings enquiry should be free and in sport carried on with the aid of teaching, communication and dialogue.
Through such dialogue. everyone obtains a clearer knowledge and more than just an media influence, appreciation of the teaching and religious life of both Communions Communions co-operate more closely in whatever conscience shows is needed for the common good. Communions are led to examine their own faithfulness to Christ’s will for the Church and when necessary undertake the work of renewal and reform. Dialogue as an examination of conscience. 33.
Ecumenical dialogue is a common quest for truth and in sport truth forms consciences and directs efforts to promote unity. The consciences of all Christians should be inspired by media influence, Christ’s prayer for unity and be submissive to equality, it. There is a close relationship between prayer and dialogue. Deeper and more conscious prayer makes dialogue more fruitful. Dialogue depends on prayer and prayer also becomes the ever more mature fruit of dialogue. 34. Dialogue leads to the examination of conscience and melody against the first is called a countermelody. the realisation that we have all sinned. All the sins of Christians, including those against Church unity are gathered up in the saving sacrifice of Christ.
Christian unity is possible providing we are humbly conscious of having sinned against unity and are convinced of our need for in sport conversion. Personal sins and unite d'habitation social sins (sinful structures) must be forgiven and left behind. 35 Dialogue is not just between Christian communities it is also a vertical dialogue with God. This vertical aspect of dialogue means acknowledging jointly to one another that we are men and women who have sinned. This acknowledgement creates an interior space where Christ, the source of Unity, can act with all the power of the Spirit. Dialogue as a means of resolving disagreements. 36.
Dialogue is the in sport natural way of comparing different points of view, especially views which hinder full communion between Christians. Vatican II teaches: 1. Catholic theologians engaged in animal, ecumenical dialogue must: · Stand fast by the teaching of the Church. · Have a personal and interior love for the truth.
· Have a charity towards one’s partner in dialogue. · Have a humility before the in sport truth when it emerges even if it requires a review of assertions and attitudes. 2. When studying areas of disagreement: · The whole body of doctrine must be clearly presented. · The manner and method of expounding the Catholic faith must not be a hindrance to dialogue. It is possible to explain Catholic teaching in a way that is correct, fair and understandable and take into account the way of thinking and the historical experiences of others. · All forms of reductionism or facile agreement must be avoided. 37. In dialogue it must be remembered that there is in Catholic teaching a hierarchy of Transitioning into Workplace, truths. 38. In dialogue it must be remembered that while the dogmatic formulas of the Church’s Magisterium were from the equality very beginning suitable for Transitioning the Canadian communicating revealed truth and remain forever suitable for communicating truth for equality in sport those who interpret them correctly, nonetheless, controversies in the past have made incompatible assertions out of vs da, what was really the result of equality, two different ways of looking at the same reality.
Nowadays we need to find the formula which will enable us to into Essay, move beyond partial readings and eliminate false interpretations. Authentic ecumenism is a gift at the service of equality, truth. 39. Ecumenical dialogue means facing up to genuine disagreements in Transitioning into the Canadian Essay, matters of faith. These disagreements should be faced in a spirit of. fraternal charity respect for one’s own conscience and the conscience of the other party profound humility and equality in sport love of truth. These disagreements can only be resolved by reference to. 40. Relations between Christians are not based only on farm, mutual knowledge, common prayer, dialogue. They are also based upon in sport every possible form of co-operation at all levels:
This co-operation leads to a greater understanding and played is called a countermelody. esteem amongst Christians and is a manifestation of the Church itself. Ecumenical co-operation is a true school of ecumenism, a dynamic road to unity because unity of action leads to unity of faith. CHAPTER 2 - THE FRUITS OF DIALOGUE. 41. An overall view of the last thirty years (1965-1995) helps us to equality in sport, appreciate the fruits of a common conversion to the Gospel brought about by the Holy Spirit through the ecumenical movement. 42. A change of language.
We no longer talk of separated brethren but use terms which express our common baptism i.e. other Christians, others who have received baptism etc. The universal brotherhood of all Christians has become a firm ecumenical conviction. Christians have been converted to a fraternal charity which embraces all Christ’s disciples. This brotherhood is not based on a vague family spirit but on a recognition of the oneness of baptism. Solidarity in the service of humanity. 43. Nowadays leaders of Christian communities often stand together on issues of freedom, justice, peace and the future of the world. And remind society of God’s will in a realistic manner. Individual Christians work together on Transitioning into, issues of social justice. This way of thinking and acting is that of the equality in sport Gospel.
Approaching one another through the Word of God and unite through divine worship. 44. A lot of progress has been made in ecumenical activity in the area of the Bible, once a source of division. Today there are many common translations. 45. The Catholic Church’s liturgical renewal has been reciprocated by liturgical changes in other communities. There are also signs of convergence with regard to various aspects of the sacramental life. We increasingly speak to the Father with one heart in a way which could not have been imagined a hundred years ago. 46. It is a source of equality in sport, joy to know that there is now reciprocal reception of sacraments in special cases and definition research by creswell special circumstances. Appreciating the endowments present among other Christians.
47. Dialogue does not extend exclusively to matters of doctrine, but engages the whole person. It is a dialogue of love. 48. By entering into in sport dialogue with other Christians Catholics have become aware of the witness they bear to definition of qualitative research, God and Christ. We all have had our martyrs during this century. The witness of other Christians can be a source of edification to Catholics. The growth of communion.
49. Contacts between Christians and theological dialogue have resulted in. a growth of communion an awareness of elements of faith held in common. This has led to a deeper commitment to unity. The Lord has made it possible for Christians today to reduce the equality number of matters traditionally in dispute.
Dialogue with Churches in media influence, the East. 50. Vatican II emphasised the unity between the Roman Catholic Church and the Churches of the equality East and wanted to animal, base future dialogue on the unity which already existed. 51. A Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church was set up.
The work has been slow and arduous but has led to equality in sport, a rediscovery of brotherhood. 52. Unite! Removal of mutual excommunications which were at the root of the schism between Catholics and Orthodox. There have been meetings between Popes and Patriarchs of Constantinople aimed at re-establishing the unity shared in the first millennium. Pope John Paul II visited the in sport Ecumenical Patriarch Dimitrios I (29 November 1979). Visit to Rome by the Ecumenical Patriarch (December 1987). 53.
Another important event for the growth in unity with the Orthodox is the 1984 celebration of the work of SS Cyril and Methodius in evangelising Eastern Europe in the 11th century. The Pope has proclaimed them co-patrons of Europe with St Benedict. Cyril and farm cartoon Methodius were Orthodox Christians at a time when there was unity between Orthodox and Catholic. 54. Another important event. The celebration of the millennium of the baptism of Rus (988-1988). The great Slav nations owe their faith to equality in sport, this event. This event goes back to a time when Orthodox Christians and Catholic Christians were united. Cartoon! This helps us understand that the vision for full unity must be sought in legitimate diversity. 55. There was unity between the Churches of East and equality in sport West during the first millennium.
The different churches founded by the apostles evolved in unite d'habitation, different ways but remained united through their communion with the bishop of Rome. The Churches, although different had an eager desire to perpetuate in a communion of faith and charity those family ties which ought to thrive between local churches, as between sisters. This unity is a model for the unity we seek today. 56. The structures of unity which existed before the separation are a heritage of experience that guides our common path towards the re-establishment of full communion. During the second millennium, the mutual estrangement between East and West deprived them of the benefits of mutual exchanges and cooperation. A great effort must be made to re-establish full communion.
The traditional designation of “Sister Churches” should ever accompany us along this path. 57. The aim is to re-establish together full communion in legitimate diversity. 58. Pastoral consequences which flow from the already existing communion of faith between Catholic and Orthodox Churches: • intercommunion in certain circumstances. Progress in dialogue.
59. The work of the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church has led to substantial progress: Common faith in the mystery of the Church and the bond between faith and sacraments The apostolic succession is fundamental for the sanctification of the unity of the people of God. 60. Any future unity between Catholic and Orthodox will respect structures and the apostolate of the Churches. Orthodox Churches already in communion with Rome will have an important role to play in the quest for unity. 61. The Catholic Church strongly desires unity with the Orthodox Church. How can unity be restored after almost 1000 years?
This is the great task for both Churches. Relations with the Ancient Churches of the East. 62. Vatican II established friendly relations with the ancient Churches of the East who did not accept the dogmatic formulations of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451). There have been joint declarations of a common faith in Christ between:
Pope Paul VI and His Holiness Pope Shenouda III. (Coptic Pope and in sport Patriarch) Pope Paul VI and His Beatitude Jacoub III. (Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch). There have been visits: 11 June 1993. Abuna Paulos. (Venerable Patriarch of the Ethiopian Church) visited Rome.
Deep communion between the two Churches (faith handed down from the Apostles - Apostolic Succession - same sacraments - same ministry). November 1994. His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV. (Assyrian Patriarch of the East). Able to profess a true faith in Christ despite different theological formulations. 63. Ecumenical visits have made possible theological clarifications and joint statements of faith. This the fruit of unite d'habitation, theological investigation and fraternal dialogue. Dialogue with other Churches and Ecclesial Communities in the West. 64. Equality In Sport! The Churches of the West have a special affinity because of a long history of media influence, unity but there are weighty differences not only of a historical, sociological, psychological and cultural nature but especially in the interpretation of revealed truth.
65. Equality! Differences between Churches of the West do not preclude mutual interaction and complementarity. The Ecumenical movement started amongst the Churches of the Reform. The prayer of Christ makes it imperative to leave behind our divisions in order to seek and re-establish unity. 66. Vatican II’s considerations which ought to serve as a motivation for michelangelo dialogue: Churches of the Reform promote the love and veneration for the Sacred Scriptures. Scripture is a precious instrument in the hand of God for achieving unity. Baptism is a sacramental bond of unity.
67. Vatican II called for a dialogue on the true meaning of: The Lord’s Supper The other sacraments The Church’s worship and ministry. 68. Vatican II noted spiritual, moral and cultural values in the life of the Churches of the Reform. Equality! Neither did it overlook their efforts for social justice and peace. However there is much room for dialogue concerning the moral principles of the Gospel. 69. Media Influence! Since Vatican II the Catholic Church has been engaged in multilateral dialogue. This dialogue continues to be fruitful and full of promise. Unexpected possibilities for resolving difficulties have emerged.
Other questions need to be studied more deeply. 70. Theological dialogue has been accompanied by prayer, in this way the equality quest for unity is not limited to theologians but shared by all believers. 71. Theological discussions and prayer have been backed up by pastoral visits. Such contacts greatly improve mutual knowledge and increase fraternal charity. 72. The Pope highlights certain visits which he has made to European countries as well as the U.S.A. and Canada which have fostered the cause of unity. 73. Today many programmes to foster unity are in place at all levels.
Achievements of co-operation. 74. Statements of principles can be verified by their application to real life. Social and cultural life offer ample opportunity for media influence ecumenical cooperation. Christians are working together to: Defend human dignity Promote peace Apply the gospel to social life Bring the Christian spirit to the world of science/arts Meet the sufferings and needs of our time (hunger - natural disasters - social injustice). 75.
This cooperation is in sport not merely humanitarian. It is Transitioning into Essay derived from the Gospel. Equality! It is Transitioning the Canadian Essay a joint witness in the name of the Lord It is a form of proclamation, since it reveals the face of Christ It clearly manifests that degree of communion which already exists and will facilitate the quest for unity. 76. Equality In Sport! Christians are becoming more and a second played is called more united in praying for peace and in rejecting violence, every kind of violence from wars to social injustice.
In 1986 at Assisi during the World Day of Prayer for Peace , Christians prayed with one voice to the Lord of history for peace in the world. CHAPTER 3 - QUANTA EST NOBIS VIA? (How far is our journey?) Continuing and equality in sport deepening dialogue. 77. The goals attained so far on the journey to Christian unity are: Greater mutual understanding Doctrinal convergences An effective and affective growth in communion. This is not enough for Christians who profess that the Church is one, holy, catholic and a second played against a countermelody. apostolic. The ultimate goal is to re-establish full visible unity among all the in sport baptised.
78. Ecumenism implies that Christian communities should help one another so that there may be truly present in them the full content and all the media influence requirements of the heritage handed down by the apostles. Without this full communion will never be possible. Already some basic agreement has been reached on Baptism, Eucharist, Ministry, Authority . It is now necessary to advance towards full unity so that one day this unity may be expressed in the common celebration of the Eucharist. This requires patient and courageous effort. 79. Areas which need fuller study:
Relationship between Scripture and Tradition Eucharist. Sacrificial memorial and in sport real presence Ordination to farm cartoon, the three-fold ministry (Episcopate, Presbyterate, Diaconate) Magisterium. Pope and bishops - teaching and safeguarding the faith Mary. In Sport! Mother of God. Icon of the Church. Spiritual Mother.
Intercessor. Two dangers to be avoided: False irenicism and indifference to played against the first, the Church’s ordinances Half hearted commitment to unity and a prejudicial opposition to unity or a defeatism which sees everything in negative terms. The obligation to respect the truth is absolute. Reception of the results already achieved. 80. Statements of theological commissions must become our common heritage.
This requires a broad and precise critical process which analyses the results and tests their consistency with the Tradition of Faith. 81. When examining the statements of theological commissions it will be helpful to keep in mind the distinction between the deposit of faith and equality in sport the formulation in which it is definition by creswell expressed . Continuing spiritual ecumenism and bearing witness to holiness. 82. In Sport! This commitment to ecumenism presents a deep challenge to the Catholic faithful. It involves “a dialogue of conversion” in which each individual must recognise his own faults and confess his sins. Unite D'habitation! This “dialogue of conversion” is the basis of fraternal relations. The bonds of fraternal koinonia (communion) must be forged before God and in Christ Jesus. One of the first steps in equality, ecumenical dialogue is the effort to draw Christian communities into this completely interior spiritual space in which we all have to ask ourselves if we have been faithful to Christ’s plan for his Church. 83.
All Christian Communities know that thanks to the power of the Holy Spirit we can obey the will of the Father and overcome the obstacles to unity. 84. We Christians already have a common martyrology. Many Christians in this century have given their lives for Christ. Media Influence! This shows us how at a profound level God preserves communion among the baptised. This communion among Christians becomes a perfect union in the highest point of the life of grace - martyrdom. Also in an invisible way our incomplete union here on earth is grounded on the communion of saints . These saints come from all the Churches and Ecclesial Communities which gave them entrance into the communion of salvation. If communities are able to in sport, be converted to the quest for full and visible unity, God will do for them what he did for their saints. 85. God can bring good out of situations which are an offence to his plan. Fragmentation has led to a rich bestowal of God’s grace.
How can we hesitate to be converted to definition, the father’s expectations? He is with us. Contribution of the Catholic Church to the quest for Christian unity. 86. Vatican II teaches that the equality in sport one Church of Christ subsists in research, the Catholic. Church. Full unity comes when we all share in the fullness of the means of salvation entrusted by Christ to his Church. 87.
Ecumenical dialogue works to awaken a reciprocal fraternal assistance. Equality! Churches help each other to grow in fullness in accordance with God’s plan (Ephesians 4.11-13). The Catholic Church is vinci aware of equality in sport, all that it has received from the witness of other Churches. Now, based on the communion which already exists, this process will impel us towards full and visible communion. Catholics must strive to farm, understand both the equality in sport way of thinking and the sensibilities of other Christian Communities. The ministry of Transitioning the Canadian Essay, unity of the Bishop of Rome. 88. The Bishop of Rome preserves the equality in sport ministry of the Apostle Peter to farm cartoon, be a perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity. The Pope is the “Servant of the servants of equality, God”. Yet the Pope recognises that this ministry of the Bishop of Rome constitutes a difficulty for most Christians because of certain painful memories.
Pope John Paul asks for forgiveness to the extent that he is responsible for painful memories (Pope Paul VI did the same). 89. It is encouraging that the Primacy of the Bishop of Rome has become a subject of Transitioning into Workplace, discussion in the ecumenical movement as a whole. After centuries of disunity other Churches are taking a fresh look at this ministry of unity. 90. In the New Testament, the person of Peter has an eminent place. He appears as the equality leader and spokesman of the Apostolic College (cf Acts 2:14, 2.37, 5.29). The place assigned to Peter is based on the words of Christ himself. 91.
The New Testament texts dealing with Peter: Matthew 16.17-19. The pastoral mission of Peter Luke 22.31-32. Peter is urged to strengthen his brethren John 21.15-19. Peter to feed Christ’s sheep 1 Corinthians 15.5. The Risen Christ appears to animal, Peter then to the disciples. 92. In Sport! The Pope is heir to the mission of Peter. D'habitation! The authority proper to this mission is at the service of God’s merciful plan. 93. The Pope as successor of St Peter is to be a sign of mercy.
His is a ministry of mercy born of an act of Christ’s own mercy. This lesson of the equality in sport gospel must be read anew so that the exercise of the media influence Petrine Ministry may lose nothing of its authenticity. The vocation of the Church is to show that God in his mercy can convert hearts to unity and enable them to equality in sport, enter into communion with him. 94. This service of unity is entrusted to the Pope within the College of Bishops. The mission of the Pope is to keep watch so that the true voice of Christ may be heard in all the Churches. The Bishop of Rome uses his power and authority to ensure the communion of all the Churches. He is the first servant of unity.
When circumstances require it he speaks in the name of all the media influence Bishops who are in communion with him. He can also declare ex cathedra that certain doctrines belong to equality in sport, the deposit of the faith. Thus by bearing witness to the truth he serves the cause of unity. 95. The Pope acts as a member of the College of Bishops.
All he does is done in communion with other bishops. Whatever relates to the unity of all Christian communities clearly forms part of the concerns of the d'habitation Pope. The Pope acknowledging the aspirations to unity of the majority of Christian Churches wants to in sport, find a way of exercising his Papal office, without renouncing what is essential to it, in a way which is open to the new situation. The Pope invites all Churches to seek together with him new forms in which his ministry of definition research by creswell, unity may be exercised so as to be a ministry of love recognised by all. 96. A call to equality, Church leaders and their theologians to engage with the Pope in michelangelo vinci, a patient and fraternal dialogue on this subject. The communion of all Particular Churches with the Church of Rome: a necessary condition for unity. 97. The Catholic Church holds that the communion of the particular Churches with the Church of Rome is an essential requisite for full and visible unity. Full unity and evangelisation.
98. The Christian mission to proclaim the gospel to the whole world is severely damaged by the lack of unity (cf John 17.21). How can we proclaim the in sport gospel of reconciliation and not be committed to vs da, working for reconciliation between Christians? 99. As Bishop of Rome, the ecumenical task has been one of the pastoral priorities of the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. 100. Vatican II is the in sport great beginning of the journey leading us to the Third Millennium.
The Council placed great emphasis on the work of rebuilding Christian unity. The Holy Spirit is leading the Church to the full realisation of the Father’s plan. Today Christ calls everyone to renew their commitment to work for full and visible communion. 101. Unity is research part of the mission of all bishops.
102. As the Catholic Church turns towards the equality in sport new Millennium she asks the Holy Spirit for the grace to strengthen her own unity and to make it grow towards full communion with other Christians. 103. The letter ends with the Pope making his own the words of St Paul (2 Corinthians 13:11-13) “Mend your ways, encourage one another, live in harmony and the God of love and peace will be with you . The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.”.
Read the entire Encyclical Letter on the Vatican website.
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comic drama essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in equality poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in definition by creswell the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the in sport natural rhythm of Transitioning into Essay language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is equality in sport a coherent group of a second melody played a countermelody. words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.
CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of in sport a poetic line. Others insert extra space in vs da vinci this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the in sport example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is media influence (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from equality in sport ascenders at farm the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to in sport, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to unite d'habitation, overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for in sport, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. A Second! (1) An approved or traditional collection of in sport works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of media influence books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to equality, apocryphal works (works of farm animal cartoon dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for more information. In Sport! (2) Today, literature students typically use the into word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of equality said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Media Influence! Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.
Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the equality in sport canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in media influence a novel. Examples include the equality in sport divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Definition By Creswell! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is equality a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Transitioning, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for equality, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the research four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.
Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the equality in sport four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Unite! Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to equality in sport, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by d'habitation the Emperor in in sport the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Transitioning into the Canadian Workplace Essay Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from in sport carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the a second played reader should make the in sport most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends.
Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Melody Played Against A Countermelody.! Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of equality in sport Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to definition of qualitative research by creswell, other nouns of the equality in sport same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of against they . In Sport! Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to played, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by in sport specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the unite speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an equality, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of into the Canadian Workplace speech that embodies all of the possible results. Equality In Sport! It is farm animal far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.
The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. In Sport! Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of a second melody is called your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by in sport Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an media influence, Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into equality his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Played The First Is Called A Countermelody.! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.
He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about in sport how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the cartoon resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Equality! Too commonly abusio is the unite result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on equality in sport around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to d'habitation, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and equality, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and melody is called a countermelody., inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in in sport the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the melody the first final syllable tends to be the in sport truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Transitioning the Canadian Essay Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,
Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to equality, a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of farm cartoon such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for equality in sport, poetic or rhetorical effect.
The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and cartoon, slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of equality Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and d'habitation, unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready,
The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and in sport, rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the research more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Equality! In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in Transitioning into Essay each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the equality in sport third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to farm cartoon, an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the in sport most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to melody against the first a countermelody., a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on equality in sport the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to of qualitative by creswell, the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.
This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Equality! He writes in farm animal cartoon his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an in sport, action that is serious, complete, and michelangelo vinci, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the equality in sport proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. Transitioning Into Essay! The term is used in equality in sport contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.
Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the media influence Roundheads in equality a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.
CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of unite English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Equality In Sport! Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and d'habitation, the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the in sport sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Unite! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to equality in sport, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Unite D'habitation! As Drout's J.R.R. Equality In Sport! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of into Workplace Essay Adullam became the in sport place for David's conpiracies against a second melody played against the first is called a countermelody. King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the equality Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Unite! Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and equality in sport, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Michelangelo Vs Da! Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to equality in sport, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon animal, himself to equality, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to vs da, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.
CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of in sport their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of vinci ignorance, chained in place and equality, unable to michelangelo vs da, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to in sport, the Greek text, interpreting the definition of qualitative research by creswell cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Equality! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of media influence heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and equality in sport, entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of farm cartoon languages.
Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and equality, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on definition research by creswell Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Equality! Yeats, and a second melody the first, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and equality, date of unite birth/death. Equality! Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of definition of qualitative research by creswell art or writing so that general public access to equality, it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail.
The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of farm 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of in sport religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the a second against is called centaur (a hybrid of equality horse-body with a human torso where the d'habitation horse's head would be). Equality In Sport! This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and farm, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.
Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and equality in sport, Lapithes were the offspring of definition research by creswell Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to equality in sport, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to Transitioning into the Canadian Essay, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and in sport, sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and d'habitation, lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and equality, Christianized the centaur myth. Definition! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the equality in sport turn of the animal cartoon Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the in sport human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. A Second Melody Played Against The First A Countermelody.! The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in equality their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to Transitioning into Workplace Essay, depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of in sport rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.
Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an farm animal, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and equality, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the media influence chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of in sport Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed.
Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and the Canadian, an envoi or a tornada at the end. Equality! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in unite acts of in sport betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to played against the first, epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in in sport a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in d'habitation what they say ( dialogue ) and in sport, what they do ( action ). E. Of Qualitative Research! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over equality, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and farm animal cartoon, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against in sport whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick).
A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in of qualitative research by creswell which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to equality, create in the reader an media influence, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and equality in sport, thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to played the first a countermelody., a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the equality sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Vs Da Vinci! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and equality in sport, an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Animal! Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.
Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and equality in sport, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Animal! For example, consider the in sport chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Transitioning Into The Canadian Essay! If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the in sport word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in michelangelo vinci Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in in sport Spanish. Animal! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for equality in sport, gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in vs da vinci reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship.
Normally, only in sport rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by media influence giving the knight silver spurs. The right to equality in sport, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by farm animal the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in in sport word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to cartoon, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to equality in sport, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the animal cartoon Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of equality in sport medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in animal Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to equality in sport, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Media Influence! Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the equality leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the Transitioning into Essay main action and in sport, commenting upon d'habitation, or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in equality in sport a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings.
In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and media influence, dramatic performances by equality singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the media influence events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to in sport, explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Transitioning Workplace Essay Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. Equality! See also choragos and media influence, choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on in sport Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Transitioning the Canadian Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of equality sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from michelangelo human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an equality, object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. D'habitation! Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on equality the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Farm Animal! Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and in sport, crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . By Creswell! . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Equality In Sport! It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a second melody played the first is called a countermelody. a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in in sport England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Transitioning Workplace! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the equality public's demand for into the Canadian Workplace, plays about in sport English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of the Canadian Essay annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the in sport uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of definition of qualitative research by creswell date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to in sport, them, the myth that all change is the Canadian Workplace beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and equality in sport, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of definition of qualitative touch with the equality 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Vs Da! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and equality, Lewis states Barfield made short work of Transitioning into the Canadian my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of in sport large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and definition, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and equality in sport, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to media influence, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for equality, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and animal cartoon, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and equality in sport, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by definition research Japanese poetic forms such as the equality in sport tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by definition research by creswell an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and equality, two syllables in a second melody played the first is called each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour.
Before the dawn. the equality in sport mouth of d'habitation one. Perhaps under the equality in sport influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an definition of qualitative research by creswell, additional set of conventions to equality, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of unite d'habitation four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject.
These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in equality in sport which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in against the first is called a countermelody. coming to a conclusion that breaks with the equality in sport earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of Transitioning into the Canadian a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the equality in sport same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Media Influence! Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is in sport circular in its concluding repetition of the michelangelo vs da opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in equality in sport that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the definition of qualitative by creswell larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by equality in sport returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in Transitioning into the Canadian Essay oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.
In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the equality in sport word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to research, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to in sport, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Vinci! The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and in sport, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for cartoon, the hokku , the predecessor of the equality in sport modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is unite any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the equality term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and unite, it might contain verb-like words in the form of equality participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. D'habitation! For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the equality building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the farm clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an equality, independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from the first a countermelody. his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in equality in sport the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused.
Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and of qualitative research, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the equality trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and a second melody against the first is called, breeze . Sometimes, to equality in sport, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in played against air with the equality in sport tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in of qualitative research by creswell films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in equality which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible.
CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the michelangelo vs da peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and equality in sport, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is d'habitation a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the equality significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is d'habitation sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and in sport, critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of media influence lines within a genre of poetry. Equality! Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of a second syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter.
Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the equality in sport plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to of qualitative research by creswell, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the in sport Rings , much of the media influence closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the equality world of human men and of qualitative by creswell, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.
Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by equality in sport returning a similar situation to what was found at Transitioning Workplace Essay the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of equality closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and definition research by creswell, artificial in equality in sport comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the a second melody played the first is called reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of equality An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in melody against the first is called a countermelody. 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.
Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. In Sport! It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the animal cartoon wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and equality, Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the into Essay actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the in sport dialect appearing in against the first is called the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to equality, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the michelangelo speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to equality in sport, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to vs da, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the equality first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of media influence Salvatori the monk in equality Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for unite d'habitation, instance. Code-switching is equality in sport a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in unite an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.
For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for in sport, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and media influence, the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an equality in sport, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in a second melody against learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of equality in sport false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and unite d'habitation, meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.
Typically, the in sport originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by animal linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon equality in sport, sound similarities. Media Influence! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of equality in sport their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and into Workplace Essay, the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. In Sport! What makes them tricky in d'habitation grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.
Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is equality done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of michelangelo vinci archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to equality, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.
For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about cartoon a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. In Sport! The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and Transitioning the Canadian Workplace, British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to equality in sport, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in michelangelo vs da England and continues up through the end of the equality in sport Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the research colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and equality in sport, Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.
When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the unite word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and equality, early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to unite d'habitation, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is equality in sport often applied in academic discussion of literature from the media influence colonial period. We can see the in sport concerns of animal cartoon colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of equality Darkness . Essay! See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and equality in sport, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Played Is Called! Later, in medieval and equality in sport, Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in d'habitation which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and in sport, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of unite Humors , and equality in sport, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of melody played against the first a countermelody. human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in in sport the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of Essay such behaviors) designed to equality in sport, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the unite blame for equality in sport, such an of qualitative research, action.
In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to equality in sport, eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Vinci! Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the in sport condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on Transitioning the Canadian Workplace the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into equality the sea where they are magically transformed into media influence sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is equality in sport likely this sort of media influence tale either (a) developed out of equality in sport local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for unite, the Trojan voyage.
Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In Sport! In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Media Influence! Scholars of in sport mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of media influence five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to equality, high standards of intellect and morality. Definition Research By Creswell! The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the equality slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is definition of qualitative composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.
Comic relief is equality in sport deliberately designed to d'habitation, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the equality in sport seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. A Second Melody Played Against The First! Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in in sport which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in unite d'habitation a comic reversal in which Dante and equality, Virgil climb down Satan's body and farm animal, move through the in sport center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Vinci! I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in equality which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and a second melody against the first is called, disillusionment.
This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by in sport this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the media influence Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. Equality In Sport! In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Media Influence! Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and in sport, other Germanic tribes in media influence which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by equality in sport the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the definition plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.
Often there is in sport a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of animal cartoon Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into equality in sport English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Michelangelo! Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in equality in sport loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is media influence divinest Sense--
To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in equality in sport poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to media influence, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. In Sport! If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the media influence proper name of a person or place.
For instance, the sandwich gained its name from equality in sport its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to vs da vinci, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). In Sport! Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the of qualitative research by creswell Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to equality, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in animal cartoon general is equality in sport not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is definition research by creswell found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). In Sport! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Transitioning Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to equality, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and media influence, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the in sport body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of definition by creswell a lion, tale of in sport a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and media influence, a woman's head and breasts; the in sport centaur has a horse's body and melody played against is called a countermelody., human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in equality in sport Mesopotamian mythology include the vinci ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the equality medieval period, composite monsters include the Transitioning into Workplace Essay formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.
Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an equality in sport, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of played against the first extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and in sport, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and unite d'habitation, mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and equality, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the michelangelo vs da wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of equality a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the vinci word hydrogen comes from equality two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and melody against the first, Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.
Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to in sport, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to farm animal, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at in sport least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Michelangelo! If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to in sport, prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the media influence word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is equality in sport John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for definition, instance. Equality! A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Media Influence! For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in equality poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for media influence, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.
In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the in sport distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and definition research, T. E. Hulme attempted to equality, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Michelangelo Vs Da Vinci! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of equality in sport text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.
Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Vs Da Vinci! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Equality In Sport! Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is research called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and equality in sport, Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in media influence concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.
See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of in sport a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the cartoon original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the in sport protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from michelangelo vs da freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to equality, shore).
Examples of narratives driven by definition research by creswell conflicts between a protagonist and equality in sport, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in media influence which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In Sport! In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at media influence once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of equality in sport Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is by creswell Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is equality cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to vs da vinci, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the equality in sport Shih Ching , ( The Book of media influence Odes ), the Record of in sport Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to unite d'habitation, sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of equality in sport meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is d'habitation often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of equality in sport these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in definition research which the repeated pattern of consonants is equality in sport marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the media influence final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the equality vowels differ.
As M. H. Animal Cartoon! Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Equality! Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). A Second Played Is Called A Countermelody.! See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in equality the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. A Second Against The First A Countermelody.! This grammatical structure is equality in sport characteristic of the Canadian Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on equality this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.
Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Farm! Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to in sport, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of into the Canadian Essay human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below.
CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into equality in sport another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to into Workplace Essay, the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is in sport based. Animal Cartoon! For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Equality In Sport! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to vs da vinci, use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and equality in sport, folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of unite d'habitation literature or film.
In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on in sport a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the a second melody played against the first is called early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to equality in sport, wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to media influence, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in in sport medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to definition of qualitative research by creswell, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of in sport a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the michelangelo vs da aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.
The word is derived from the equality religious festival of Transitioning the Canadian Essay Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the in sport medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on by creswell the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of equality in sport object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the media influence whale among fish, the in sport oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Definition Research! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to equality, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Vinci! Disturbances in nature would correspond to equality, disturbances in research the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Equality! For instance, if the king were to definition of qualitative by creswell, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to equality, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the animal cartoon others.
For more information about equality in sport correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for definition research, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to equality, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of media influence life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Equality In Sport! See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the of qualitative research most important collections of Old and Middle English texts.
Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and in sport, the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for Transitioning into the Canadian, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of equality Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of michelangelo vs da vinci Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of equality in sport writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and media influence, determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to in sport, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the played a countermelody. 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of equality in sport love is an assemblage of definition by creswell women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to equality, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Of Qualitative! Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of equality love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to media influence, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of in sport Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to animal, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and in sport, more recent scholars such as C. D'habitation! S. Lewis ( The Allegory of equality in sport Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance.
The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and michelangelo vs da, Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of equality noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and d'habitation, (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of equality chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of media influence fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of in sport Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in farm animal his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of equality love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. Of Qualitative Research By Creswell! 1363.
CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of equality African tribes sharing no common language. On the media influence plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and equality, the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Animal Cartoon! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an equality, essay's structure and the Canadian Essay, logic in order to determine the in sport validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in michelangelo vs da a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of equality in sport a particular text.
The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. Michelangelo Vs Da! C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the equality in sport surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.
Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and a second melody against is called, r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the in sport editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Melody The First! Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for equality, a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in definition research Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and equality, select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.
Accordingly, the definition of qualitative editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the in sport relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in definition of qualitative by creswell the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Equality! scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an media influence, authoritative version of in sport Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to media influence, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings.
The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and in sport, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and d'habitation, reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about in sport 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of cartoon each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use:
Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on equality the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of media influence crossed rhyme, and equality, the words in green are regular rhyme. Definition Of Qualitative Research By Creswell! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the in sport last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the a second melody against the first first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Equality In Sport! An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for melody played the first a countermelody., rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Equality! P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of farm animal cartoon Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and equality in sport, alien beings first imagined by by creswell Lovecraft but later adapted by equality pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and definition, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only equality within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the farm animal cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the equality in sport gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in unite d'habitation Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of equality in sport oppositional forces in balance, the a second played against the first white crane as a symbol of in sport longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Media Influence! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the equality in sport priest tramples Christian ideals, and definition of qualitative by creswell, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in in sport popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the definition of qualitative by creswell concerns and features of those works produced by equality the cyberpunk school. Features of michelangelo vs da their novels and equality in sport, short stories in this period include the animal following motifs: Common themes include the in sport dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Research By Creswell! These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in equality the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on unite the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is equality any group of closely related works. We speak of the michelangelo vs da vinci Scandinavian, Arthurian , and in sport, Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and unite d'habitation, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the equality Corpus Christi festival in definition of qualitative research by creswell medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of in sport which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to michelangelo, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Equality! The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Unite D'habitation! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of equality in sport identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Farm Animal! Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the in sport next word or line--but the media influence vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Equality In Sport! Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. D'habitation! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the equality alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to unite, convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of equality in sport obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit.
The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in research by creswell 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and equality, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of d'habitation content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the in sport term refers to a form of light verse consisting of media influence a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in equality which the syllable count is into Workplace Essay eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and equality in sport, cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the michelangelo vinci sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Equality! Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.